Palatals Reflexes in Bikol


In the book “Comparative Austronesian Dictionary, An Introduction” by Darrell T Tryon and Shigeru Tsuchida, the consonantal configuration of common in western Indonesian languages are shown as follows [page 33]:

  Bilabial Dental/Alveolar AlveoloPalatal Velar Glottal
Plosives p
b
t
d
c
j
k
g
(ʔ)
Fricatives   s     h
Nasals m n ñ ŋ  
Laterals   l           r      
Semivowels w   y    

Bikol have the same set except for palatals, which were merged with other consonants, and the glottal stop. The movement was from Palatal to Dental/Alveolar ( c,j,ñ > t,d,n).

Palatal Nasal

The same book says: “PMP *ñ is indisputably reconstructible. It appears to be a PMP innovation, however, since there are no separate reflexes of it in Formosa. A survey of the PAN items containing *ñ listed by Tsuchida (1976) reveals that there are very few of them and that the Formosan correspondences are more consistently interpreted as reflexes of PAN *n or *L (which became PMP *n) followed by a high vowel.” [Comparative Austronesian Dictionary: An Introduction , Vol I, Part 1, page 72]

Daughter languages of PMP showing this phoneme are Javanese and Malay, and in Proto-Oceanic. In Bikol, the palatal nasal was merged with n (initial) or y (medial).

English mosquito chew name teeth cry
PMP *ñamuk *mamaq *ŋajan *nipen *taŋis
Tagalog lamuk ŋuyaʔ
namnam (taste)
ŋalan ŋipin ʔiyak
Bikol namuk ŋuyaʔ ŋaran ŋipon taŋis
hibiʔ
Itbayaten hamuruk ŋetŋet ŋaran ñipin tumañis
Kapampangan qamúk
yamuk
laŋut lagyúʔ ʔípan kiyák, gagaʔ
Chamorro ñamu ñamñam na’an nifen taŋes
Melayuh nyamuk kunyah nama gigi taŋis
Moken ñamok məña:y ŋañan lepan naŋay
Iban ñamok kuñah nama ŋeliʔ sabak
Ngadju Dayak ñamok ŋunyah aran kasiŋa manaŋis

I have the feeling that for “chew”, the source word could be “ŋuñak”: Minangkabau has “maŋuñah” and Melayu Sarawak has “ŋinyak” apart from the Malay forms.

Of the Philippine languages, only Itbayaten has the phoneme ñ but I can only find examples both preceded by i, so its a possible palatalization. Bikol ngunian > nguñan (now) and hinaniog > hinañog (listen) are possible coalescence with the vowel i. According to Charles [1974], “ The only Philippine language reflecting PPh *ñ unmerged with *n is Kapampangan: PPh *ñamúk > Kp yamuk ‘mosquito’, PPh *qányud > Kp qa(:)ñud ‘ to be carried by the current’.”

Palatal Plosives

According to Laurence Reid, only a few western Indonesian languages did not merged *c with *s, such as Javanese, Malay, Malagasy and Acehnese. This imply that the original palatal *c became s in all Philippine languages. I doubt if this is true since the other two palatals became dental/alveolar, unless they passed through *t stage first.

As for *j (or *Z), it merged with *d in Bikol (all positions) but further changing to r in intervocalic medial positions. Rukay in Taiwan maintained these alveolar and palatal phonemes. *z also merged in the same manner. The same sound change happened in Waray. Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilonggo changed the middle *d into l instead, and Aklanon into ɣ.

English name day nose road sharp rain dry
PMP *ŋajan *qalejaw *ijuŋ *zalan *tazim *quzaN ʀaŋaw
Ilokano nagan ʔaldaw ʔag dalan tadem tudo namaga
Pangasinan ŋaran ʔagew ʔel dalan macdem ʔuran amaga
Ifugao ŋa:dan ʔalgaw qol tadom ʔudan mimigi
Bikol ŋaran ʔaldaw duŋoʔ dalan tarom ʔuran mara
Aklanon ŋá:ɣan ʔadlaw ʔilúŋ dá:ɣan taɣúm ʔuɣán maɣa
Waray ŋaran ʔadlaw ʔir dalan tarom ʔuran mara
Ilonggo ŋalan ʔadlaw ʔil dalan talum ʔulan mala
Cebuano ŋalan ʔadlaw ʔil dalan háit ʔulan mala
Tagalog ŋalan ʔaraw ʔil daʔan talim ʔulan tuyoʔ
Western Bukidnon Manobo ŋazan ʔanzew ʔiz dalan gar ʔuzan maza
Malay/Indonesian nama (fr Sanskrit “name”) hari (fr Sanskrit “yellow”
[the sun])
hid jalan tajam hujan keriŋ

 

Some more reconstructed words from Malcolm Ross:

English PAN Paiwan Puyuma Thao Rukay Siraya Bikol Malay
  *Z = *z
*d1 = *d
*d2 = *Z
*d3 = *D
*z > dj [dʸ]
*d > dj [dʸ]
*Z > z
*D > ɖ
*z > d
*d > d
*Z > ɖ/ʐ
*D > ɖ/ʐ
*z > s
*d > s
*Z > s
*D > t
*z > d
*d > D [ɖ]
*Z > D [ɖ]
*D > D [ɖ]
*z > d,l
*d > s
*Z > s
*D > s
*z > d-r
*d > d-r
*Z > d-r
*D > d-r
*z > j
*d > d
*Z > d-d-t
*D > d
road *zalan djalan daran   *dalane   dalan jalan
nearly, almost *zaLiH djalji ‘soon’     me-d-dali   daliʔ  
straw *zaRami djamia daramian       dagami jerami
needle *zaRum djaum daʔum     lakim dagum jarum
walk *zawaC djavats     *davace   lakaw  
far *zawiL       *daili   rayoʔ  
rain *quzaL qudjalj ʔudal   *udale udal ʔuran hujan
lake *danaw danaw danaw       danaw  
sole *dapaL djapalj dapal   *Dapale sapal dapan  
blood *daRaq djaq daraʔ       dugu? darah
drift *qañud qaljudj laʔud   *aluDu   ʔanud  
forehead *daqiS djaqis           dahi
lick, kiss *dilaq dj<m>ilaq     *Dila   dilaʔ  
thorn *duRi djui         dugi duri
soil, clay *daReq   dareʔ   *daʔe   dagaʔ  
water *ZaLum zaljum

ɖanum

    salum tubig  
east inland *Zaya i-zaya

ɖaya

  *Daδa taxa-seya ʔiraya “inland” barat-daya “southeast”
stuck in throat *Zekel zekel

ɖekel

         
dark *ZemZem zemzem

ɖeme-kerem “dawn twilight”

    masimdim diklum
dulum
 
distant thunder *Zeruŋ zuŋ

ɖeruŋ

  *Dereder siŋdiŋ daguŋduŋ  
other *Zuma zuma

ɖuma-ɖuma

  *Duma      
shrimp, lobster *quZaŋ quzaŋ qezaŋ       ʔuʔang hudaŋ
Cane prop, walking stick *CukuZ tukuz-an sarekuɖan   *ukuDu hukas tukud  
west *lahuZ ljauz

ɭauɖ

  *LauDu r<m>aus lahud “deep sea” laut “sea”
Sambucus formosana *layaZ ljayaz layaɖ   *laδaD      
back *likuZ likuz likuɖan     rikuz likud  
deliver *SateZ satjez atezan “escort someone home”       hatud hantar
chin *timiZ tjimiz timiɖ   timiɭ   ku?ku?  
old (things) *ZaZal zazalj-an “last year’s harvest”         daʔan  
alive *quZip q<m>uzi-quzip         buhay  
spoon *qiZus   ?iɖus          
black *quZem quze-quzem “dull”         ʔitum  
fence *qalaZ           kudal  
thick (as of a board) *DemeR ke-ɖemel kezemer   *Demele      
two *DuSa

ɖusa

ɖua tusha ɖusa sa-sua duwa dua
pandanus *paŋuDaL paŋuɖal “pineapple” paŋuɖal “pineapple”   paŋuDale “pineapple”   pandan pandan
grey heair *quDaS quɖas   qutash     ʔuban  
adhere *dekeC se-djekets ɖekeʈ       dukut  
point, instruct *[t,C]uduq tsudjuq tuzu?       tukdu  
bent *Dukuŋ ɖukuŋ   dukuduku     dukuʔ “bowed”  
seize, catch *dakep djekep   sakup   rakep dakup dekap
grasp, grab *dakuC djakuts         dakut  
thoughts *demdem   demdem   *Demedeme   rumdum “remember” dendam “yearning”
spittle *ludaq ludjaq “betelnut spittle”         lutab ludah
roast *ZaŋZaŋ zaŋzaŋ   sansan *Daŋe   daŋdaŋ dandaŋ “cooking pot”
sleep *tuZuR           turug tidur
leak, drip *tuZuq tjuzuq   tusuq *tuDu   turuʔ  
hoe, dig *kuDkuD kuɖkuɖ         kudkud “grate coconut  
leg *kuku(ZD)   kukuɖ   *kuku   kukud “animal foot nail”  
fire *capuy sapuy apuy apuy *apuy apuy kalayo api
chirp *cuni           huni “cry of animal”  
thread (neddle) *CucuR c<m>usu aʈur       tuhug  
tree, wood *kaciw kasiw kawi kawi   kayu kahuy kayu
fingernail, claw *kuckuc kuskus   kuku     kuskus
kutkut (claw)
kuku (nail)
kuku
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