Realis Mood Infix Marker <in>


In the conjugation of NAF verbs, the Realis Mood infix <in> is quite regular in Bikol as shown below for the word base bilang ‘to count’:

NAF affix Realis
Perfective
Realis
Imperfective
Irrealis
Perfective
Irrealis
Imperfective
<um> bumini:laŋ minabi:laŋ bumi:laŋ ma:bi:laŋ
<ən bini:laŋ binibi:laŋ bila:ŋon bibila:ŋon

ɥi>

ɥi

bini:laŋ

ɥi

binibi:laŋ

ɥi

bi:laŋ

ɥi

bibi:laŋ

<an binila:ŋan binibila:ŋan bila:ŋan bibila:ŋan

But in the AF affixes, at first glance, the affix used is not <in>, like the m> is just replaced with n>:

NAF affix Realis
Perfective
Realis
Imperfective
Irrealis
Perfective
Irrealis
Imperfective
mag> nagbi:laŋ nagbibi:laŋ magbi:laŋ ma:bi:laŋ
ma> nabi:laŋ nabibi:laŋ mabi:laŋ mabibi:laŋ
maŋ> naŋbi:laŋ nbibi:laŋ maŋbi:laŋ maŋbibi:laŋ

magiŋ

* * * *

But it seems data from another language in the Philippines indicate that the original conjugation is also with <in>. According to Reid: “Casiguran Dumagat retains unreduced forms of the completed aspect of the reconstructed Proto-Extra-Formosan verbal prefixes (table 1). In Proto-Extra-Formosan, verbs were marked as completed aspect, or past tense, by infixing *<in> following the first consonant (*m>), of the verbal prefixes. Paranan, and all other Northern Cordilleran languages (as well as Ilokano, and the non-Negrito Central and Southern Cordilleran languages), have subsequently reduced these infixed forms by deleting the first two segments, thus setting up an m-/n- nonpast/past paradigm.”

And this is his table to illustrate this:

image

And he gave comparison as well for the conjugation of the mag> prefix between Tagalog, Kapampangan and Sinauna:

 

image

Form this table, we can say that Tagalog and Bikol drop the first syllable (mi>) and Kapampangan drop the <CV> of the second syllable (<na>). He further said that  “In Maranao, only the medial <n> was deleted, setting up an <ÿ>/<iÿ>nonpast/past paradigm”. Looking at Sinauna, the infix <in> is still to be found in the Realis Imperfective (Progressive). And going back to Reid’s comment that the Realis Perfective (completed/past) of Dumagat is ‘minag>’, we can then say that the conjugation pattern in the proto-language would be like this:

AF affix Realis
Perfective
Realis
Imperfective
Irrealis
Perfective
Irrealis
Imperfective
mag- minagbi:laŋ minagbibi:laŋ magbi:laŋ magbibi:laŋ
ma- minabi:laŋ minabibi:laŋ mabi:laŋ mabibi:laŋ
maŋ- minaŋbi:laŋ minbibi:laŋ maŋbi:laŋ maŋbibi:laŋ

magiŋ

* * * *

And from this therefore we can conclude that there is only one way to indicate Realis Mood in the proto-language, and that is by infixing <in>.

The path for the changes in these languages would be:

Tagalog: (1)Drop the 1st and 2nd segment.

Bikol: (1) Drop the 1st and 2nd segment, (2) Merger in the Irrealis Imperfective with –um– with the loss of <g>.

  Tagalog Bikol
minag- > nag- > nag-
minagCV:- > nagCV:- > nagCV:-
mag- > mag- > mag-
magCV:- > magCV: > ma:CV:

Kapampangan: (1) (a) Drop the 3rd and 4th segment in the Realis Perfective and (b) drop the 2nd and 3rd segment in the Realis Imperfective. (2) Drop the reduplication of base in the Imperfective Aspect and add vowel length in Realis Imperfective to differentiate from Irrealis Imperfective. We know Kapampangan has reduplication in the Imperfective aspect since the NAF affixes uses CV reduplication, as described in wikipedia.

  Sinauna Kapampangan
minag- mig- > mig-
minagCV:- mina:g- > ma:g-
mag- mag- > mag-
magCV:- magCV- > mag-

Reading from that wikipedia entry, we are told of the many irregularities in the Kapampangan conjugation plus merger of the <an and <ən NAF affixes in some conjugation.

Reid in “Unraveling the Linguistic Histories  of Philippine Negritos” also mentioned that “Alta, like many other Negrito languages, also maintains unreduced  forms  of  the completed aspect of verbal prefixes. All other Meso-Cordilleran languages have reduced them to n-initial forms (see Table 2)”

 

image

 

In “Arta, Another Philippine Negrito Language”, he also spoke about the Arta language : “In many of the languages spoken by Negritos in the Northern Philippines (including the Ayta languages and Sinauna Tagalog of the Sambalic family, Casiguran Dumagat, and the Alta languages), the completed aspect of the stative prefix  has  both forms, mina– and nu-, in free variation. Arta  also has both affixes, but whether they are in free variation or are functionally distinct requires further research to determine. Table 17 lists the remaining ma-, nu-, and  mina– forms in  the  data, some  of  which  may  in  fact  be adjectives, and not stative verbs. The completed aspect form of this prefix directly reflects *minaN– (e.g. minambusali ‘swelled up’),  as in the Negrito languages mentioned above.”

So, all in all, the languages that still has this unreduced form are Sinauna (Infanta Dumagat), Casiguran Dumagat, Northern Alta, Southern Alta and Arta.

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