Bisayan Languages, Part 1


This post is taken from  several sources, with the following as contributing the most:

General Reference:

  1. The Bisayan Dialect (1905) by Frank Blake.
  2. Differences Between Tagalog and Bisayan (1904) by Frank Blake.
  3. Philippine and North Bornean Languages (2013) Jason Lobel
  4. A Grammar of Magindanao Tongue (1906 ) by J Juanmarti

Sugbuhanon

  1. A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan by John Wolff
  2. Cebuano Affixes (2010) by Edgie Polistico
  3. Cebuano Study Notes by Tom Marking
  4. An dila natong binisaya (1947) by Manual Yap
  5. English Bisayan Grammar (1904) by Guillen, Nicolas, and Zueco; Translated by Jimenez

Aklanon

  1. A Study of Aklanon Dialect (1968) by David Zorc.
  2. A Study of Aklanon dialect (1969) by vICENTE sALAS rEYES

Samarnon

  1. Bisayan Grammar (1908) by Norberto Romualdez.

Hiligaynon

  1. Hiligaynon Reference Grammar (1971) by Elmer Wolfender
  2. Hiligaynon Lessons (1971) by Cecile Motus

 

THIS POST IS INCOMPLETE, A DRAFT.

This is mostly a summary of the differences between the major Bisayan languages (Sugbuhanon, Hiligaynon, Samarnon, Kiniray-a, Aklanon, etc.) plus some contrasts that I will make with Tagalog and Bikol.  I would be using the aforementioned language names instead of Cebuan, Hiliguayna and Samaro-Leytean, or the more common  Cebuano, Hiligaynon and WarayWaray. For a linguistic map of Central Philippines, click here.

A. Phonology

http://www.binisaya.com/content/dialectology-cebuano-similarities-and-differences

http://www.binisaya.com/content/dialectology-cebuano-phonology

1. Phonological Changes for medial /d/ > /r/ and  /l/.

Zorc showed that the medial /y/, /d/, and /l/  “.. current re-flexes are: generally /l/ in Hiligaynon-related dialects, /ɣ/ in Aklanon, /r/ in Kinaray-a (spoken in Antique province) and Hinaray-a (the dialect spoken by the mountain people of Panay), /y/ in Romblomanon, and /d/, /r/, or /y/ in Odionganon.”

Dempwolff’s
Proto-Austronesian
Aklanon Hiligaynon Kiniray-a Romblomanon Sugbuhanon Tagalog Bikol Samarnon
maiden *daɣa daɣaɣa dalaga daraga dayaga dalaga
daga
dalaga daraga daraga
rain *udan uɣan ulan uran uyan ulan, uwan ulan uran uran
carry daɣa dala dara daya dala dala dara dara
wise aɣam alam aram alam* alam alam aram aram
elder guɣang gulang gurang guyang gulang
guwang
gulang gurang gurang
not dili dili hindi dai,diri diri
they sila sila sila sinda, sinra sira
write sulat sulat
suwat
sulat surat surat
red *hiɣa puɣah pula pula
puwa
pula pula pula
hall/house *balay baɣay balay baray bayay balay, bay bahay baloy balay
moon *bulan buɣan bulan buran buyan bulan buwan bulan bulan
wait huɣat hulat hurat huyat hulat hintay halat hulat
fall huɣog hulog hurog huyog hulog hulog hulog hulog
nearby ɣapit lapit rapit yapit duol lapit rani rani
cold ɣamig lamig ramig yamig bugnaw lamig lipot hagkot
sin saɣa’ sala’ sara’ saya’ sala sala sala’ sala’
only ɣang lang lang* yang lang lang lang
ugly ɣaw’ay law’ay raw’ay yaw’ay pangit pangit makanos mabara
evil ɣa’in la’in ra’in ya’in masama maraot  

* possibly borrowed from Hiligaynon.

From the above chart, we can see that there is levelling of /r/ and /l/ in Western Bisayan (Hligaynon, Aklanon, Kiniray-a, Romblomanon, etc.). Odionganon seems to be like Romblomanon with a lot of borrowings. Aklanon has velar fricative.

/ɣ/ distinguish with /l/

Aklanon native words with /r/, except those that were originally /d/.

The velar fricative he mentioned is also found in other Philippine languages ( Itbayaten (Batanes), Isneg (Apayao), Monobo Western Bukidnon, Samal (Sulu) and Sagada Kankanay ) and in Borneo and Madagascar.

In Tagalog, for medial /l/ , if the vowel before and after it are the same, then replace with /h/ or glottal  [bahay “house”, buhus “flow”, daan “way”], if after /u/, then replace with /w/ [buwan “moon”, buwig, uwi,  “go home”], if after /i/, then replace with /y/, if before /e/, then retained [belaj > bilad “dry in the sun”]. Existing medial /l/ in Tagalog came from /r/, borrowings or some words that have not undergone such changes. Cebuano underwent the same changes:

Bikol retained the distinction between medials /l/ and /d/ (which become /r/), as well as Samarnon. Although Kiniray-a also has “r”, it changed both “r” and “l” into “r”.

According to Blake, the proof that the original is *r rather then *l is that:

While words which have “r” in Samarnon have regularly “l” in Sugbuhanon and Hiligaynon, many words appear in all these dialects with “l”, e. g., balay ‘house,’ where if the change were from “l” to “r”, we should expect Samarnon *baray.  Moreover in Tagalog, where an original “r” regularly  becomes “l”, as is seen from the treatment of loan words (e. g., antala ‘interrupt ‘ from Sanskrit antara’ between ‘compisal’ confess’ from Spanish ‘confesar’ words which have “r” in Samarnon appear with “l”. On the other hand, a common Bisayan “l”, when intervocalic, is lost in the Tagalog  (e. g., daan ‘road ‘= Bisayan dalan) according to the regular treatment of original intervocalic “l” in that language.’

It should be noted that Bikol behave like Samarnon in terms of reflexes of the original middle /d/ whie Tagalog behave like Sugbuhanon and Hiligaynon.  Of course, there are also other sound changes that differentiate Tagalog, Bikol and Bisayan languages, such as the reflexes of schwa, the original l, glottal stop, metathesis, etc.

It would seem that there are 2 sound changes that happened: (1) Western Bisayan languages and Trade routes Languages (Tagalog, Sugbuhanon and Tausug) all underwent merger of medial /d/ and /l/, while eastern languages Bikol and Samarnon did not; (2) the trade routes languages Tagalog, Sugbuhanon (Cebu City, Northern Leyte, Bohol , but not Negros or Mindanao) and Tausug made further changes by irregularly deleting medial /l/ but this did not happen on all words. In Tagalog no medial /l/ from change #1 was affected by change #2, while in Sugbuhanon change #2 happened to both medial /d/ and /l/. It is possible that since Sulu, Cebu and Manila are trading ports in Pre-Spanish times,  the same set of people propagated these changes in Tausug, Sugbuhanon and Tagalog.

The order of the change maybe change #2 then (or at the same time) change #1 in Tagalog but change #1 then change #2 in Sugbuhanon, as data shows. If that happened, and assuming change #2 happened at the same time between Tagalog and Sugbuhanon, then change #1 happened at different times: it happened first in in Sugbuhanon and other Western Bisayan languages, and in Tagalog.

    image

The sound changes need to be studied some more in Tagalog and Western Bisayan languages to determine the right sequence.

The schwa changes in Central Philippine languages should not be used to subgroup since these sound change may have happened last; as a matter of fact, there are still varieties of Bikol, Samarnon and Sugbuhanon that has the schwa sound. Samarnon does not subgroup with other Bisayan even if it has the same reflex for schwa since medial /d/ and /l/ changes took place much earlier. Samarnon’s and other Bisayan reflex of schwa being the same is just convergence due to being neighbours.

2. The Eastern languages share another trait: Samarnon and Bikol are different than the other Central languages in turning the final velar -ng to dental –n.

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
the       ang     ang     ang     an     an
indefinite accusative particle       sing     nang sin / hin     nin
ligature after a vowel       –ng     –ng     –ng    –n     –n

 

3. Final Vowel Sounds in Aklanon

In Aklanon, the word is either ended with /h/, /ч/ or nothing, and this has an effect on suffixation.

bataч young kabataччan youth consonantal gemination
putiч white kaputiччan whiteness consonantal gemination
botoh vote botohhan to vote for consonantal gemination
basah read basahhon to read something consonantal gemination
asawa pangasawчon /a/ lost before /o/
iti ityan /i/ changed to semivowel /y/ before /a/
tubo sugarcane katubwan place with lots of
sugarcane
/o/ changed to semivowel /w/ before /a/

In Bikol and Tagalog, all consonants that does not end in the glottal stop / / are presumed to end in /h/, so, with suffixation, /h/ is automatically inserted. No gemination occurs.

4. The schwa sound

 

 

 

5. The glottal stop

The Tagalog glottal stop in regional varieties resembles more that  of the Bisayan, than Bikol.

  Tagalog
Southern Dialects
Sugbuhanon Bikol
now ngay-on karon ngunyan
broth stew sinig-ang sig-ang
gabi gab-i gabii banggi
sweet matam-is tam-is hamis  
heavy mabig-at gabat
bone but-o   bu-to
(> bu’tohan)
   

 

B. Mophology

Verbal Affixes

1. Action Orientation

I will be using the term Orientation instead of Focus, as described here by Himmelmann.

This is quite unique in the world.

Action Orientation Role Affix
Source or Origin Actor, Agent -um-, mag-, mang-,
Destination or Goal Undergoer,
Patient, Object
-on or –in (from –ɨn)
Conveyance Instrument, Beneficiary i- or hi- (from si-)
Locus Locative -an

It’s safe to say that all Bisayan languages maintain this action orientation in their verb conjugation. Tausug has an alternate form for the i- affix, hi-. Instrument orientation affix is hipang- and reason orientation is hika-.

For the <ɨn affix, the most important observation is that this suffix is absent in the Begun Progressive Aspect (Present) for all languages.

mag- and mang- are in the Active voice, –um- in the middle voice and the rest are in the NonActive voice. Since Philippine languages don’t really have passive forms but absolutive-aligned transitives (non-active) vs. accusative-aligned transitives (active), I will not be using the word “passive” here but NonActive Voice.

2. Tense/Aspect/Mood Distinctions : Begun  vs. UnBegun Aspect.

I have assumed that Bisayan languages does not make tense distinction but instead aspect distinctions. The following Aspect schema compares with most TAM description of Bisayan languages:

Aspect Tense
Begun Progressive Present
Begun NonProgressive Past or Preterit
UnBegun Progressive Future
UnBegun NonProgressive Infinitive

As for Mood, I will use Realis (aka Indicative) Mood and Irrealis  (aka Imperative and Subjunctive) Mood.

As indicated above, Bisayan languages maintain a distinction between Begun and Un-Begun Aspect, as well as Progressive and Non-Progressive Aspect. Which languages have defective paradigm distinctions will be mentioned below.

As a general rule, the infix –in- is used to indicate Begun Aspect and its absence indicate UnBegun Aspect, but due to passage of time, affixes have fused with other affixes. Let’s look first at existing affixes to indicate Begun and UnBegun aspect.

The following charts illustrates the conjugation. Sugbuhanon uses gi- or gin-.  Samarnon can use either –in- infix or –gin-  and there seems to be a difference in Romualdez’ work (still to be checked!). According to Wolfenden, in Hiligaynon, –in- and –gin- are in free variation and can be substituted with no change in meaning. (Add Aklanon, Kiniray-a etc)

-ɨn suffix Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Samarnon Tagalog Bikol
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative) buhata buhata buhata buhatin mo buhata
UnBegun Progressive Aspect (Future) bubuhaton bubuhaton bubuhaton bubuhatin bubuhaton
Begun  NonProgressive Aspect (Past) gibuhat ginbuhat
binuhat
ginbuhat
binuhat
binuhat binuhat
pigbuhat
Begun Progressive Aspect
(Present)
gibuhat ginbubuhat
binubuhat
(also ginabuhat)
ginbubuhat
binubuhat
binubuhat binubuhat
pigbubuhat
hi- prefix Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Samarnon Tagalog Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative) ibuhat
igbuhat
ibuhat
igbuhat
ibuhat ibuhat ibuhat
UnBegun Progressive Aspect (Future) ibuhat
igabuhat
ibuhat
igabuhat
ibubuhat ibubuhat ibubuhat
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (Past)
gi
buhat
ibinuhat
iginbuhat
ibinuhat
iginbuhat
ibinuhat ibinuhat
ipigbuhat
Begun Progressive Aspect
(
Present)
(?)
gi
buhat
ibinubuhat
iginbubuhat
ibinubuhat
iginbubuhat
ibinubuhat ibinubuhat
ipigbubuhat
-an suffix Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Samarnon Tagalog Bikol
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative) buhati buhati buhati buhati buhati
UnBegun Progressive Aspect (Future) bubuhatan bubuhatan bubuhatan bubuhatan bubuhatan
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (Past) gibuhatan ginbuhatan ginbuhatan binuhatan binuhatan
pig
buhatan
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present) gibuhatan binubuhatan binubuhatan binubuhatan binubuhatan
pigbubuhatan

It is not just –in-, gin- and pig- affixes that are used: Bantonan uses ing-, Buhinon uses pinag-. (Kiniray-a and Bantoanon conjugation were sourced from here).

-ɨn suffix Kiniray-a Bantoanon Buhinon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative) buhata buhata buhata buhata
Infinitive buhatɨn buhaton buhatɨn buhaton
UnBegun  Progressive Aspect
(Future)
pagabuhatɨn abuhaton pagibuhatɨn bubuhaton
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(Past)
ginbuhat ingbuhat pinagbuhat
binuhat
binuhat
pigbuhat
Begun Progressive Aspect
(Present)
ginabuhat inabuhat
ingbubuhat
pinagibuhat
pibuhat
binubuhat
pigbubuhat

Other languages does not show traces of this pag> in the past. (Sarangani Manobo, the Perfective Begun affix (past) is <im>, <in> or <ing>; Ilokano  uses <in> and most languages mentioned by Lobel). Also, Bikol alternatively uses the prefix pig>. Marano’??

(To add: for the Actor Orientation Affixes) –um- , mag-, ma- and mang- )

3. Tense/Aspect/Mood Distinctions : Progressive vs. NonProgressive Aspect.

The Progressive Aspect is indicated in two ways:

  • #1 By reduplicating the CV- of the first syllable of the base word, which can be the root or root combined with a verbal affix or fully reduplicated, and prefixing it to the base word before the orientation affix is added
  • #2 By prefixing –a- to the base word before the orientation affix is added.

The first method is used by Samarnon all throughout its verbal paradigm. The second method is used by Hiligaynon, Kiniray-a, Aklanon, Romblomanon, and Onhan. In Sugbuhanon, there is no Progressive/NonProgressive Aspectual distinction in most verbal affixes, there is no difference in the conjugation between (a) “imperative-infinitive” and “future”, and (b) “preterit” and “present” except in those verbs with mag>, <um> and pa> which uses method 2 (See examples below). All other verbs have but two forms. This loss of distinction is also already happening in Hiligaynon, where the unreduplicated forms may  be used also for present and future. (see examples in individual affixes below).

In the –in affix (see above tables), although Sugbuhanon has reduplication in the “future”, this is absent in the “present”. In Hiligaynon and Samarnon both “present” and “future” have reduplication. In Hiligaynon gina- may also be used in the “present”. For the i- affix, in Hiligaynon and Samarnon the “present” have reduplication. Only Samarnon has reduplication in the “future”.  In Sugbuhanon and Hiligaynon, the “future” is either (a) the same with the imperative, (b) the “future” is added with <a> from the imperative. For the <an affix, in Hiligaynon and Samarnon the “present” and “future” have reduplication. Note that Sugbuhanon “present” is identical with the “past” for <on, i> and <an affixes due to Sugbuhanon not distinguishing aspect for these affixes.

Bantoanon (or Asi) in  Begun Progressive Aspect (aka Present) uses method 1 and Un-Begun Progressive Aspect (aka Future) uses method 2, and Caluyanon reverses this in the Object Orientation. Here is the chart according to Lobel for some of the western bisayan languages:

image

Among Tagalog dialects, Marindoque Tagalog uses  method 2 and the other dialects uses method 1. In Bikol dialects, Bikol Coastal, Rinconada, Sorsoganon (Central Sorsogon or Masbate Sorsogon) and Gubatnon (Southern Sorsogon or Waray Sorsogon) uses method 1; Buhi, Northern Catanduanes and Southern Catanduanes uses method 2; Libon uses method 1 only in Begun Progressive Aspect;  Polangui uses method 1 only in UnBegun Progressive Aspect; Oas and Ligao uses method 1 only in object Orientation (Begun and UnBegun Aspect), the rest of the conjugation uses method 2. Buhi, Polangui and Oas uses –i- instead of –a-. In Masbateño, use is dependent on the speaker.

It is noteworthy that the so-called Bisakol dialects (Sorsoganon, Gubatnon and Masbateño) aspectual conjugation is atypical for a Bisayan language. Samarnon and Bisakol should probably be removed from Bisayan and grouped with Bikol, as Samarnon and Bisakol phonetic reflexes may not be shared innovation with Bisayan. Even the Bikol epic Ibalon mentions that Handiong and Baltog came from Samar prior to settling in Ibalon.

We can say that Sugbuhanon has not retained much of the Progressive/NonProgressive aspectual distinctions among Philippine languages, as it has simplified the aspects a lot except for 3 holdout affixes. The following table summarizes the Progressive/NonProgressive aspect distinction in Samarnon using CV- reduplication, the language that retains most of the distinctions:

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (-in-) nag…..
na…..
igin…..
i.in…..
gin……
.in…..
gin…..an
.in…..an
Begun Progressive Aspect (-in-) nag.R.…..
na.R.…..
igin.R.…..
i.in.R.…..
gin.R.…..
.in.R.…..
gin.R.…..an
.in.R.…..an
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect mag…..
ma…..
ig…..
i….
pag….on
………on
pag……an
……an
UnBegun Progressive Aspect mag.R.…..
ma.R….
ig.R.…..
i.R….
pag.R.…..on
R.……on
pag.R.…..an
R.……an

There are other ways of indicating Progressive/Nonprogressive Aspect in Philippine languages that I have seen, like using a)  CVC- reduplication (Ilokano), b) CVC- reduplication (Manide Agta) and c) CVCV- reduplication (Dupaningan Agta), but I would write about them in a separate blog.

4. Volition : In-Control vs Out-Of-Control verb forms

As I mentioned, –in- is the marker for Begun Aspect. So the question arise as to the origin of the alternatives to <in> affix. Lobel explained in his book “An Satuyang Tataramon” that its from the two ways of combining pag> and <in>:

(1) Interfixed between pag- and word base (thus concatenated to pag)

Source Form Present form Change Languages
pag>+<in> pagin-
paging-
<in> is inserted between the words ??
(pa)g>+<in>
gin-
ging-
Loss (?)of pa- in pag-, then -in-is infixed between –g- and word base. Hiligaynon, Samarnon, Caluyanon
Kiniray-a
Romblomanon
Masbateño
gi(n)- gi- Loss of –n- Sugbuhanon
Southern Catanduanes (
San Andres)
(g)in- in> Loss of g- Sorsoganon
Gubaton
Bantoanon

(2) Infixed to pag-

Source Form Present form Change Languages
p<in>ag> pinag- Infixation of <in> Buhinon
Libon
Mamanwa
pi(na)g- pig- Loss of –na- Bikol Coastal
Rinconada
Ligao
East Miraya
Viracnon
Southern Catanduanes (Bato)
Northern Catanduanes (Payo)
pig- ig- Loss of p- Northern Catanduanes (Pandan)
pig- > big- big- Voicing of p- Viracnon
pig- > piy- piy-   Southern Catanduanes (San Miguel)
Northern Catanduanes (Viga)
piy- > -iy- -iy-   Maranao
pag- > pay pay- Polangui
pay > pi- pi- Polangui, Buhinon

Lobel’s dissertation “Philippine and north Bornean Languages: Issues in Description, Subgrouping and Reconstruction” possibly provides an alternative pathway from pinag- to pig-: pinag- > pinag- > piag- > pig-.

I have serious doubts about the first source (the source of –gin- ) since (1) the behavior of <in> is unusual (it is not infixed inside a word), and (2)  there is no existing language or records that has this combined affix of pagin-, unlike pinag-. –in- is a word infix, and should behave like any infix. Putting –in- after g- and before the word base is not infixing (interfixing?) into a word, since g+wordbase is not a word. The only expected behavior therefore is that of #2 (pinag-).

A slightly altered explanation is that <g> is a short form of <pag>, shortened before combining with the infix <in> (see above form source) as well as made plausible when <g> in Bisayan is translated in Tagalog and Bikol forms with <pag> in compound affixes (Hiligaynon makig-, Tagalog makipag-; etc.). But there are  two counter examples that prevents application of this in all instances.  (1) In the Present Tense mag> conjugation, the ga> from naga>. The Future tense maga> does not shorten to ga>, due perhaps to possible confusion in meaning between the Present and Future if it does.

mag> prefix Aklanon / Romblomanon Onhan Hiligaynon, Kiniray-a
Infinitive magbuhat magbuhat magbuhat
UnBegun Progressive Aspect  (Future) ma(ga)buhat mabuhat magabuhat
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (Past) nagbuhat nagbuhat nagbuhat
Begun Progressive Aspect  (Present) (na)gabuhat gabuhat nagabuhat

(2) In some Bisayan affixes, g- and pag- are not equivalent or identical. Consider Tagalog magsi- and Hiligaynon masig-. These affix means the same: to do the same action by a number of people simultaneously or concurrently. If –g- is from –pag-, then it should be possible to use mapagsi- or even masipag- in Tagalog, Hiligaynon, Aklanon and other Bisayan languages (Cuyonon). But from this webpage where it describes the alternate forms (see below), we can only deduce that masig- can be derived from magpasig- and not magpagsi- or masipag-.

magsi- / masig-> prefix Hiligaynon
UnBegun Infinitive pagpasig> pasig- > pasi-
UnBegun Progressive Aspect (Future) masig>
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (Past) nagpasig- > nasig-> nasi-
Begun Progressive Aspect  (Present) ??

The same can be said of the Hiligaynon manag– (Tagalog and Bikol mangag-).

Thus perhaps a better explanation is that there is a separate infix, –g-, found in mag-, masig-, makig-, mangag-,   pag-, etc; and that the –g- in ig- or gin- is not shortened from pag- but instead combination of smaller affixes <g> and <in>, with <g> having an “in-control” meaning. Pag> is not from Mag>, rather pag> is composed of pa><g>, with pa> indicating participle or subjunctive meaning in all its uses, as this is the form for all the affixes. Pa> becomes pag> in the Participle or Subjunctive only in the AAF paradigm, apart from the other pang>. This explains the alternation ma-/mag-, –in-/-gin-.

Aside from its better explanatory power, one language makes distinction between gin- and –in- : Samarnon. In Norberto Romualdez grammar of 1908, he distinguish the two as Progressive and Primitive. According to him, progressive denotes continuance of action while primitive is used in its original and simplest form. Here is an example for the verb ‘surat’ (write) with his terms and schema:

Affix   [Active]
[Instrumental Passive] [Direct Passive ] [Indirect Passive]
Present    Progressive
Primitive
nagsusurat
na:surat
iginsusurat isinusurat ginsusurat
sinusurat
ginsusuratan
sinusuratan
Past            Progressive
Primitive
nagsurat
sinmurat / si:nurat
iginsurat.
isinurat
ginsurat
sinurat
ginsuratan
sinuratan
Future Progressive
Primitive
magsusurat
ma:surat
igsusurat
isusurat
pagsusuraton susuraton pagsusuratan
susuratan
Subjunctive Progressive
Primitive
magsurat
sumurat
igsurat
isurat
pagsuraton
suraton
pagsuratan
suratan
Infinitive Progressive
Primitive
pagsurat
pagsurat
pagsuratan pagsuratan pagsurata
pagsurata
pagsurati
pagsurati
Imperative Progressive
Primitive
pagsurat
surat
pagsurat
suratan
pagsurata
surata
pagsurati
surati

If we modernize the terms and concepts, progressive is “In-control” and primitive is “Out-of-control”, add the ma- affix, regularize the –um- affix using Bikol and Hiligaynon models and superimpose in this Samarnon conjugation table, we can  come up with this schema:

Voice >   Middle Active/
Non-Active
Non-Active Non-Active Non-Active
Orientation >   Actor Actor Conveyance Goal Location
Affix   um ma i on an
Begun Progressive Aspect
(Present)
In-control 
Out-of-control
suminusurat nagsusurat
nasusurat
iginsususurat isinusurat ginsusurat
sinusurat
ginsusuratan
sinusuratan
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (Past) In-control 
Out-of-control
suminurat nagsurat
nasurat
iginsurat.
isinurat
ginsurat
sinurat
ginsuratan
sinuratan
UnBegun Progressive Aspect (Future) In-control 
Out-of-control
sumusurat magsusurat
masusurat
igsusurat
isusurat
pagsusuraton susuraton pagsusuratan
susuratan
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect (Infinitive) In-control 
Out-of-control
sumurat magsurat
masurat
igsurat
isurat
pagsuraton
suraton
pagsuratan
suratan
Subjunctive In-control 
Out-of-control
surat pagsurat
pasurat
pagsuratan pasuratan pagsurata
pasurata
pagsurati
pasurati
Imperative In-control 
Out-of-control

surat

pagsurat
pasurat
surat
pagsuratan
pasuratan
suratan
pagsurata
pasurata
surata
pagsurati
pa
surati
surati

Of course, –um- is a middle voice affix, mag- is an active voice affix and  the rest non-active voice affixes.

In Hiligaynon these forms with <g> are used especially when the subject is plural, or the action of the verb frequentative; in Sugbuhanon, when the subject is the instrument or cause of the action. In Samarnon this pluralizing <g>, although apparently not used in the verb, is found in the plural of certain adjectives.

(for the actor orientation affixes)

5. Prospective Aspect : –NUG– Affix

This affix seems to be restricted in the Western Bisayan languages like Hiligaynon, Kinaray-a, Aklanon and Hanunuo but not found in Sugbuhanon, Samarnon, Bikol and Tagalog.

This affix can be analyzed as a combination of –nu- plus –g-. The –nu- postpositive prefix has a future intentional or future expected meaning, and the –g- has the “in control” meaning. The -nug- prefix is found in the following combination:

Orientation
manug- ma+nu+g actor  (due to the ma-)
inug- i+nu+g instrument (due to the i-)

The Aklanon manog- prefix has 2 uses according to Zorc:

(a)  Means immediately expected action, an action that is just about to happen:

Aklanon Manogtapos ro sine.
English The movie is just about to end.

 

Aklanon Manogitlog ro manok.
English The chicken is going to lay an egg.

(b) It can state an intended or planned action.

Aklanon Manoghalin kuno kamo.
English It is said that you intend to move.

 

Aklanon Pag-abot nana kahapon, manogsimba ako.
English When he arrived yesterday, I was about to go to church.

In this Hiligaynon page, it means “one about, or expected, to do the action” and produces a shift in accent.

Sample in Hiligaynon from Wolfenden:

Hiligaynon Manuglakat na kami ugaling nag-abot ang bisita.
English It was time for us to go but the visitors arrived.

Sample Sentences for Kiniray-a and Hiligaynon  taken from the online Bible:

a) [Mark 10:17]

Hiligaynon Sang malakat na kuntani si Jesus…
Kiniray-a Kang manugpanaw run si Jesus….
English And as he was setting out on his journey…

The action here is just about to happen.

b) John 6:14

Hiligaynon Matuod gid nga ini sia amo ang Propeta nga magakari sa kalibutan!
Kiniray-a Amo run gid dya ang Propeta nga manug-abot sa kalibutan!
English This is indeed the Prophet who is to come into the world!

For me, this use of manug- in Kiniray-a does not denote either an event that is just about to happen, but something that will happen in an indefinite time in the future.

c) Acts 21:2

Hiligaynon Nakakita kami didto sing isa ka sakayan nga manugkadto sa Fenicia.
Kiniray-a Rugto sa Patara may nakita kami nga barko nga manug-agto sa Fenicia
English And having found a ship crossing to Phoenicia…

This action is an intended action, not an action that is about to happen.

The prefix INUG– expresses instrumentality or time, and according to Wolfenden, inug- has the meaning of “expected use”.

Hiligaynon Inugsaot sang tinikling ang bayo nga ini.
English This dress is for dancing the tinikling.
Hiligaynon Inugbayad sang matricula ang kwarta.
English The money is to be used to pay the matriculation fee.
Hiligaynon Inuglumpat sang mataas ni Pedro sang nagpito ang referee.
English It was the time when Pedro was to jump high when the referee whistled.
Hiligaynon Inugkanta sang dalaga subong.
English It’s time for the girl to sing now.

It’s possible in Tagalog and Bikol to replace inug- with pang- if the meaning is “used for”  (the first 2 examples), but not possible in the “time for” meaning (the last 2 examples).

Sample sentences for Kiniray-a and Hiligaynon:

Acts 3:1

Hiligaynon Isa sadto ka adlaw nagkadto si Pedro kag si Juan sa templo sang mga alas tres ang takna sa hapon, nga amo ang tion sa pagpangamuyo.
Kiniray-a Sangka adlaw, alas tres ti hapon nga amo ang oras nga inugpangamuyo, nag-agto si Pedro kag si Juan sa templo.
English Now Peter and John were going up to the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour.

Here, inug- is used with”intent” or purpose or instrument.

Acts 18:21

Hiligaynon kundi nagsiling sia sa ila sang manuglakat na sia…
Kiniray-a Pero kang inugpanaw na run, nagkuon tana kananda…
English But on taking leave of them he said…

Acts 24:17

Hiligaynon Nagkadto ako didto sa pagdala sang kuwarta nga ibulig sa akon mga kasimanwa, kag sa paghalad sing mga dulot sa templo.
Kiniray-a Nagbalik ako agud magdara kang kwarta nga inugbulig sa akun mga isigka-Judio, kag agud maghalad sa Dios.
English I came to bring alms to my nation and to present offerings.

Here inug- is also used like is for a purpose or instrument.

Luke 23:56

Hiligaynon Dayon nagpauli sila kag naghanda sing mga pahamot kag inughaplas para sa bangkay ni Jesus.
Kiniray-a Dayon nagparauli sanda kag naghanda kang mga pahamot kag inughaplas sa lawas ni Jesus.
English Then they returned and prepared spices and ointments.

Same here.

Acts 13:15

Hiligaynon Mga utod, luyag namon nga maghambal kamo sa mga tawo kon may yara kamo nga inughambal nga makapabakod sa ila.
Kiniray-a Mga kabugtoan, kon may inughambal kamo sa katawhan para sa kaaraydan nanda, hambal lang kamo.
English Brothers, if you have any word of encouragement for the people, say it.

same here.

From Zorc’s Aklanon verbal inflection chart, it seems that manog- and inog- is different from UnBegun Progressive Aspect forms maga- and iga-, the UnBegun Progressive Aspect forms, so we can construct a paradigm like the following:

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (-in-) nag…..
.um…..
gin…..
.in…..
gin……
.in…..
gin…..an
.in…..an
Begun Progressive Aspect (-in-) naga…..
ga…..
gina….. gina….. gina…..an
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect mag…..
ga…..
i…..
……on
……an
UnBegun Progressive Aspect maga….. i(ga)….. (paga)…..on (paga)…..an
UnBegun Prospective Aspect (-nu-) manog….. inog….. .Vɣ…..on .Vɣ…..an
Participle pag…… inog…… [ø] [ø]

I have re-labeled Zorc’s Extended Aspect to Prospective Aspect, meaning “an event that occurs subsequent to a given reference time”. If the reference time is not indicated, since this is in UnBegun Aspect, the reference time is the present time. I think this is the opposite of the Recent Past, so can be termed Recent (Near) Future. I am just baffled by the –an and –on forms counterpart which does not involve the –nug-. Is there really no nug…an and nug….on forms? How about manu… and inu… forms?

Also, it seems like this can’t be combined with Begun Aspect, as there is no nanog- form, or the Progressive Aspect, since there is no manoga- or inoga- forms in Aklanon. The reason being that denotes something in the future(?), so can’t co-occur with any Begun Aspect?.

How does it fit within Bisayan TAM? Is this really an aspect, or tense? It would be a tense if it can be contrasted with possible existing tense distinctions (past, present, future)  or an aspect if with existing aspect distinctions (progressive, non-progressive) or a mode/mood.

I find it unusual that this affix in not found in Sugbuhanon and Samarnon. Does this absence imply that these languages lost them? Or Hiligaynon acquired them from its neighbors?

5. Pluractionality : the –Vr- Affix.

In Bikol, this affix denotes plural action due to multiple performance of the action by a lone actor or by multiple actors. This affix is productive in Aklanon, in Bikol, Samarnon, and frozen in some words in Tagalog, Hiligaynon, Sugbuhanon, etc. This affix has the following forms in the various languages:

Hiligaynon -Vl- ; -VlVl- 
Sugbuhanon  
Samarnon  
Kiniray-a  
Aklanon –Vɣ-
Tagalog                   (ot found)
Bikol -Vr-

I have discussed this affix in here in relation to Aklanon.

According to Wolfenden, Hiligaynon also distinguishes plural action by infixing –Vl- twice:

a) with –an suffix

Hiligaynon Sililinggitan ko si Josefa.
English I shout and shout at Josefa.

b) with –on suffix.

Hiligaynon Madamo nga libro ang sulululaton ko.
English I have lots and lots of books to write.

c) with mag- prefix

Hiligaynon Nagkalalaon sila.
English They are all eating at the same time.

Apart from  -Vl+Vl-, Hiligaynon also has –Vl- infix according to Wolfenden which denotes “the purpose for which something is used as an intense desire or specialized use” or “the normal or sometimes habitual use of the topic of the action” :

Hiligaynon Hiliwa sang karne ang kutsilyo.
English The knife is for slicing meat.

 

Hiligaynon Balakal ko sang libro ini nga kwarta.
English This money will be used for buying a book.

 

The following usage in Hiligaynon adds the –Vl- into the verb. The meaning I got from these sentences are not the way the English translation indicate , they’re not future multiple action to be done. The sense I get is that of a habitual action done on the sentence topic.

a) with –an affix:

Hiligaynon Talahian ko sang bayo ang lamesa.
English I will be sewing some dresses on the table.

I get the meaning of “The table is where I will sew several times a dress.” or “The table is where I will habitually sew a dress.”

Hiligaynon Silinghutan sang buyod ang bulak.
English The flower is for a bee to smell.

I get the meaning of “The flower is where the bee will smell several times .” or “The flower is where the bee will habitually smells.”

b) with –on affix:

Hiligaynon Hiliwaon ko sang kutsilyo ang karne.
English I will slice the meat with the knife.

I get the meaning of “The meat will be sliced several times by me with the knife.” or “The meat will be habitually sliced by me with a knife.”

c) with i- affix:

Hiligaynon Isululat sa pisara ang chalk.
English The chalk will be used for writing on the blackboard.

I get the meaning of “The chalk will be written several times on the blackboard.” or “The chalk will be habitually written on the blackboard.”

d)  with mag- affix:

Hiligaynon Magasilipa sila sang bola.
English They will kick a ball.

I get the meaning of “They will kick (plural) a ball” or “They will kick a ball several times.” or “They will habitually kick a ball.”

e) with an imperative verb:

Hiligaynon Maghiliwa kamo sang karne.
English You be slicing some meat.

I get the meaning of “(You plural) Slice the meat.”

f) with –um- affix:

Hiligaynon Balakal ko sang libro in nga kwarta.
English This money will be used for buying a book.

 

Hiligaynon Ang tabako ang balaligya niya.
English Tobacco is his usal sales item.

 

g) with an adjective

Hiligaynon Makabulusog ang pansit.
English The pansit always will fill (you) up.

 

 

The following usage in Hiligaynon adds the –Vl- into the

a) with pa- + –Vl-

Hiligaynon Si Nanay palaluto.
English Mother is fond of cooking.

 

Hiligaynon Nagpalaluto si Nanay.
English Mother was always cooking.

 

b) with pang- + –Vl-

Hiligaynon Palanghugas sia sang tiil.
English She is fond of washing her feet.

c) I have no example for pag- + –Vl-

d) with ka- + –Vl-

Hiligaynon Nagkalahubog ang bisita.
English The visitor got drunk.

 

6. Iterativity

7. The Imperative use of Irrealis Mood

Impersonal Imperative are used when the agent of the verbal action is not expressed in Sugbuhanon and Hiligaynon (like in some Tagalog dialects, and Bikol).  In Samarnon, these forms are used as the regular personal imperative instead of the forms with the suffixes <on and <an.

All the languages have Imperative and Requestive/Permissive Moods. The Imperative mood is used when giving a command or order, the Requestive/Permissive is a polite way to request something to be done or ask permission to use or partake.

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Expressed Subject,
Direct Imperative
pag…..
mag…..
ipag….. pag…..on pag…..an
Unexpressed Subject,
Direct Imperative*
pag….. pag…..an pag…..a pag…..i
Expressed Subject,
Neutral command
.um….. i….. …..on …..an
Unexpressed Subject,
Neutral command*
….. …..an ……a …..i
Expressed subject
Polite Imperative
paki…..
maki…..
ipaki….. paki…..on paki…..an
Unexpressed subject
Polite Imperative*
paki….. paki…..an paki……a paki…..i

Tagalog does not use the Unexpressed Subject forms marked with * (I have not checked fully if the Marindoque dialects use this.) According to Hsiu-chuan Liao, only the following languages have this polite imperative/requestive sense and the original comitative sense: Tagalog, Bikol, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan and Ilokano. Sugbuhanon and Aklanon does not have the requestive sense, only the comitative usage and Samarnon was not mentioned. Aklanon uses the direct and the neutral imperative forms. The forms for Aklanon according to Zorc are (called Past Conditioned, Future Conditioned):

Zorc’s Label ma- i- -on -an
Simple Mode
Future Conditioned
Expressed Subject
Direct Imperative
pag……
mag……
.um……
ig…… pag……on
ig……on
pag……an
Simple Mode
Past Conditioned
Unexpressed Subject
Direct Imperative
mag…… pag…..an
ig……
pag…..a
ig……a
pag…..i
Subjunctive Expressed Subject
Neutral Imperative
ma…… i…… ……on ……an
Command Unexpressed Subject
Neutral Imperative
…… ……an ……a ……i
Accidental Mode
Past Conditioned
(nahi)…… (nahi)…… (nahi)…… (nahi)……i
Ability Mode
Past Conditioned
naka…… kina…… na…… naha……i

I have re-labed Zorc’s past and Fuiture Conditioned to Direct Imperative.

Aklanon’s Past Conditioned Accidental Mode is not entirely an Imperative:

Aklanon Siin hidadakpi ro isda, kundi sa ba-ba?
Tagalog *Saan [……] ang isda, kung hindi sa bibig?
Bikol *Sain [……] an sira, kundi sa ngusu?
English Where else might you catch a fish, but by the mouth?

No example given of for  Past Conditioned Ability Mode.

Pakig- form in Hligaynon FROM Liao? 

The direct imperative forms are quite strong commands, so should not to be used with superiors or peers. Neutral Imperative forms may be used with peers, and the Polite Imperative (also called Requestive/Permissive/Petitive forms) may be used with superiors. In Tagalog, the forms can be further made polite by adding “po” or “ho”, and in Bikol by “po” or “tabi” or “po tabi”. According to Zorc, Aklanon uses the Neutral Imperative for polite commands.

For Negative commands, Tagalog uses the direct and neutral imperative forms [ huwag pagtakhan, huwag kainin], as well as Bikol: direct and neutral imperative forms [hare pabayae/bayae ; dai mo pabayaan/bayaan]. Aklanon uses the Direct Imperative  [indi magpanaw, ayaw magsinggit].

8. The Middle Voice : -UM-  affix

<um> infix Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative) sumulat sumulat     sumulat sumurat sumurat
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
musulat sumusulat
(also
musulat)
    susulat ma:surat ma:surat
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
misulat
(<minsulat)
sinmulat     sumulat
(< sung
mulat)
sinmurat
sinurat
suminurat
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present) misulat sinmusulat     sumusulat
(< sungmusulat)
na:surat minasurat
NonProgressive Aspect
Participle
[ø] [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]
Progressive Aspect
Participle
[ø] [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]

Sugbuhanon has three forms for <um> infixed verbs.  The particles mi> and min> in Sugbuhanon probably bear the same relation to one another as the passive affixes gi> and gin>, below, which is that between a long form and a shortened form. I would even like to hypothesize that Sugbuhanon min> ( > mi> ) could be cognate to Bikol <um><in> . Hiligaynon shows Sugbuhanon influence again in the Future. In addition in Hiligaynon, reduplication is employed to denote present and future. The Samarnon present and future are to be compared with certain Tagalog dialects’ present with prefixed na>, e. g., nasulat, which is a by-form of the regular present, and Bikol future, ma:surat e. g., sungmusulat or sumusulat.  Note that Samarnon and Bikol both did not use reduplication to mark future and present. (see the –um- conjugation below).

Tagalog old Begun Aspect forms with infix –ungm- has been simplified in modern Tagalog into –um- : –umin- > –umn- > -uŋm- > –um-.

9. Stative & Potentive: MA-  affix 

This is the Out-of-Control equivalent of mag- affix.

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

 

Maranao still has the original form of the prefix: miya-, which was from mina-.

 

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect na….. ipina….. pina…..on pina…..an
Begun Progressive Aspect
na.R….. ipina…R.. pina…R..on pina…R..an
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect ma….. ipa….. pa…..on pa…..an
UnBegun Progressive Aspect ma.R….. ipa…R.. pa…R..on pa…R..an
NonProgressive Aspect
Participle
pa…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
NonProgressive Aspect
Participle
       
  Progressive Aspect
Participle
     

 

 

Stative (static) verbs are describe a state of being, while eventive (dynamic) verbs describes an action. Stative verbs are “nonwilled”, eventive verbs are “willed”. Eventive verbs signal that the actor is in the dynamic action using the progressive aspect, while stative verb using bare roots. Unlike other languages (Lithuanian, Russian), using progressive on stative verbs does not have an inchoative aspect (beginning of a state) but a progressive aspect. In English, stative verbs cannot be expressed in progressive aspect. Tagalog Reference is here.

Stative verbs cannot use the AF mag- affix or the NAF pig- (Bikol) or gin- (Bisayan).

Note that stative or eventive depends on the verb meaning. Bikol “muot” (to fall in love) is stative, so can’t combine with mag- (*magmuot) but with ma- (mamuot), but Tagalog “mahal” (to love) copmbines with mag- (magmahal) and not with ma- (*mamahal). Tagalog tulog is stative (matulog, not *magtulog) but in Bikol eventive (magturog, not *maturog).

Stative verbs can be used imperatively.

Stative verbs are subclassed into verbs of perception and sensation, hurting, stance/positions , cognition, emotion, sensation, reasoning and mental attitude and relations.

Tagalog
(state > stative)
Bikol
(state > stative)
perception and sensation
     see kita > makita hiling > mahiling
     hear dinig > marinig dangog > madangog
     feel, perceive ramdam > maramdaman mati > mamatian
     smell amoy > maamoy parong > maparong
    hungry gutom > magutom gutom > magutom
     taste lasa > malasahan lasa > malasahan
emotion
    want, desire, like ibig > maibigan sono > masonoan
    wish nakalaom > maglaom
    please, happy masaya > sumaya ogma > maogma
    impress hanga > humanga hanga > humanga, maghanga
    astonish bigla > mabigla
gulat > magulat
bigla > mabigla
    dislike habo > maghabo
    hope nakaasa > umasa nakaasa > umasa, magasa
    hate, abhor, detest inis > mainis ungis > maungis
    love, adore mahal > magmahal muot > mamuot
    need kailangan > mangailangan kaipo > mangaipo
    fear takot > matakot takot > matakot
hurting
     ache masakit > sumakit, magsakit makulog > kumolog, magkulog
     itch makati > kumati, magkati magatol > gumatol, maggatol
    dumb pipi > mapipi pula > mapula
    die, pass away patay > mamatay gadan > magadan
  be born >  maipanganak maipangaki
stance/position
     stand nakatayo > tumayo nakatindog > magtindog
     sit nakaupo > umupo nakatukaw > magtukaw
     lie nakahiga > humiga nakahigda > maghigda
     sleep tulog > matulog turog > magturog
     reach abot > maabot, umabot abot > maabot, mag-abot
     surround nakapaikot > makapaikot, magpaikot nakapaikot > makapaikot, magpaikot
involuntary action
    fall pagkahulog > mahulog pagkahulog > mahulog
    wet umiihi > maihi nagiihi > maihi
    carry daladala > madala daradara > madala
cognition
     believe pagtitiwala > magtiwala minatubod > magtubod
     regret pagsisisi > magsisi minasulsul > magsulsul
     understand pagkaunawa > maunawaan minasabot > masabotan
     suppose minahunahuna > maghunahuna
     think minaisip > magisip
     satisfy
     mind
     remember, recall [ø] > magalaala giromdom > maggiromdom
     prefer
     forgive [ø] > magpatawad minapatawad > magpatawad
     mean
     presuppose
     doubt
     realize
     intend
     recognize
     regard
     guess
     imagine
     know alam > maalaman aram > maaraman
relations    
    resemble gaya > gumaya arog > umarog, nagarog
    contain nasa…… > mapasa……. nasa…… > mapasa…….
    get
    belong
    cost
    have
    belong
    own
    possess

 

[Incomplete treatment of Statives, from Zorc.]

10.  In-Control Actor Orientation: MAG-  affix

In Sugbuhanon for verbs with the prefix mag>, the future and present tenses are made by inserting an <a> after the prefix in imperative and preterite, respectively, thus still maintains the 4 distinctions. This also happens in Hiligaynon as well apart from the reduplication. (Sample word; buhat ‘do, make’, Tagalog ‘lift’). Note that in Tagalog, the future and present forms of the mag> are made by reduplicating the first syllable of the root.

mag> prefix Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Samarnon Tagalog Bikol
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect
(Imperative)
magbuhat magbuhat,     magbuhat magbuhat magbuhat
UnBegun Progressive Aspect (Future) magabuhat magabuhat,
magbubuhat
    magbubuhat magbubuhat ma:buhat
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (Past) nagbuhat nagbuhat     nagbuhat nagbuhat nagbuhat
Begun Progressive Aspect
(Present)
nagabuhat nagabuhat,
nagbubuhat
    nagbubuhat nagbubuhat nagbubuhat

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect nag….. ipinag….. pinag…..on pinag…..an
Begun Progressive Aspect nag.R….. ipinag…R.. pinag…R..on pinag…R..an
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect mag….. ipag….. pag…..on pag…..an
UnBegun Progressive Aspect mag.R….. ipag…R.. pag…R..on pag…R..an
UnBegun Prospective Aspect [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]
NonProgressive Aspect
Participle
pag…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
Progressive Aspect
Participle
pag.R….. [ø] [ø] [ø]

 

 

See Casiguran Dumagat minag-

Maranao miyag-

languages in North Borneo

 

11. Distributive Action: MANG- affix

This is is found in Aklanon, Hiligaynon, Sugbuhanon, Samarnon, Kiniray-a, Tagalog and Bikol and denotes that “the action is performed on a multiplicity of objects, or is repeated action.”

(Example word root: lohod ‘kneels’). I have indicated Blake’s tense terms here together with aspectual and modal terms.

mang> prefix Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Samarnon Tagalog Bikol
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative) manlohod manlohod     manlohod manglohod manglohod
UnBegun Progressive Aspect (Future) manlohod manlolohod     manlolohod manglolohod manglolohod
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (Past) nanlohod nanlohod     nanlohod nanglohod nanglohod
UnBegun Progressive Aspect (Present) nanlohod nanlolohod     nanlolohod nanglolohod nanglolohod

To fill in the Orientation/Aspect/Mood Paradigm:

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect nang….. ipinang….. pinang…..on pinang…..an
Begun Progressive Aspect nang.R….. ipinang…R.. pinang…R..on pinang…R..an
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect mang….. ipang….. pang…..on pang…..an
UnBegun Progressive Aspect mang.R….. ipang…R.. pang…R..on pang…R..an
UnBegun Prospective Aspect [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]
NonProgressive Aspect
Participle
pang…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
Progressive Aspect
Participle
pang.R….. [ø] [ø] [ø]

Maranao still has the original form of the prefix: miyang-, which was from minang-.

Sample sentences Hiligaynon sentences:

a) with –on affix:

Hiligaynon Panglutoon ko ang lumpya sa kalaha.
English I will cook a quantity of the lumpia in the frying pan.

This use of mang- is so rare, I thought it’s not found in Tagalog and Bikol, even with reduplication “panglulutuin” but found one result online:

Tagalog Inutusan kasi sila ni D.O. para mamili ng mga panglulutuin niya kinabukasan. [from here]
English Because they were commanded by D.O to buy stuffs to be cooked by her/him the following day.

b) with i- affix:

Hiligaynon Ipangluto ko sang lumpya ang kalaha.
English I will use the frying pan to cook some lumpia.

This is also found in Tagalog and Bikol, except with reduplication: Ipangluluto.

c) with ma- affix:

Hiligaynon Mangluto sia sang lumpia.
English She will cook a quantity of lumpia.

This use is also in Tagalog and Bikol, except with reduplication: mangluluto, with the meaning “She will cook lumpia for someone.”

d) with –an affix:

Hiligaynon Panglutoan sang kan-on sang baboy inang kaldero.
English I will cook some pig’s food in the pot.

This use is also in Tagalog and Bikol, except with reduplication: panglulutoan.

The following use of mang- is also not found in Tagalog and Bikol:

Hiligaynon Mapanguha sila sang isda sa suba.
English They will catch some fish at the river.

In Tagalog its usually “mangunguha”, with reduplication and no ma+pang combination but direct mang- affix. (In Bikol its simply “ma:kua”). The “mapanguha” in Tagalog is normally a substantive and denotes ”someone who habitually takes something from someone without their knowledge, pilfer, filch.”, like in the following example:

Tagalog Grabe naman, Mapanguha pala tung si John, pati pusu ko kinuha na niyaaaaaa. [from here]
English It’s too much. John is a stealer, even my heart he took already.

 

12. Change of State: MAGING- affix.

This is attached to nouns or noun phrases to give the verbal quality of “becoming” or “change of state”. This affix has the following forms in the various languages:

 

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
manig-, mani-, mangi-? mangin- or maging+ maging+   maging+ maging+ mani- or maging+
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

Filling it into the Orientation/Aspect/Mood Paradigm:

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect naging….. ipinaging….. pinaging…..on pinaging…..an
Begun Progressive Aspect nagiging….. ipinagiging….. pinagiging…..on pinagiging…..an
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect maging….. ipaging….. paging…..on paging…..an
UnBegun Progressive Aspect magiging…. ipagiging….. pagiging…..on pagiging…..an
UnBegun Prospective Aspect [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]
NonProgressive Aspect
Participle
paging….. [ø] [ø] [ø]
Progressive Aspect
Participle
pagiging.….. [ø] [ø] [ø]

 

The Hiligaynon equivalent affix is mangin- or maging-.

Hiligaynon Manginkaribal sia sa indi oras ni Fred.
English He will unexpectedly become Fred’s competitor.

 

Hiligaynon Kon wala sia makapanginlaman, ayhan lumusot sia sa idalom.
English If she was not aware of it, she probably passed through underneath.

 

Hiligaynon Duha dungan sang lima maging pila?
English Two plus five becomes how much?

 

Hiligaynon Naging maayo sia maghampang sang basketbol.
English He became a good basketball player.

 

13.  Sociative Action: MANGAG-  affix

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect nag….. ipinag….. pinag…..on pinag…..an
Begun Progressive Aspect nag.R….. ipinag…R.. pinag…R..on pinag…R..an
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect mag….. ipag….. pag…..on pag…..an
UnBegun Progressive Aspect mag.R….. ipag…R.. pag…R..on pag…R..an
UnBegun Prospective Aspect [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]
NonProgressive Aspect
Participle
pag…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
Progressive Aspect
Participle
pag.R….. [ø] [ø] [ø]

 

14. Reciprocal Action: –AY / –ANAY Suffix.  

John Wolff  listed  2 meanings for this verb forming affix: (I have not included here the noun-forming -ay affix meaning.) This affix has the following forms in the various languages:

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
-ay -anay -anay?   -an -ay -an
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

Filling it into the Orientation/Aspect/Mood Paradigm:

a. Reciprocal actions

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect nag…..(an)ay [ø] [ø] [ø]
Begun Progressive Aspect nag.R…..(an)ay [ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect mag…..(an)ay [ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Progressive Aspect mag.R…..(an)ay [ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Prospective Aspect [ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]
NonProgressive Aspect
Participle
pag…..(an)ay [ø] [ø] [ø]
Progressive Aspect
Participle
pag.R…..(an)ay [ø] [ø] [ø]

In Bisayan (Except Aklanon?)

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun Aspect nag…..(an)ay [ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Aspect mag…..(an)ay [ø] [ø] [ø]
Participle pag…..(an)ay(?)

“They argued back and forth”

Sugbuhanon Naglalisay sila.
Hiligaynon  
Samarnon  
Tagalog Nagtatalan sila.
Bikol Nagturusayan sinda.

“They stared at each other.”

Sugbuhanon Nagtutukay sila.
Hiligaynon  
Samarnon  
Tagalog Nagtitigan sila.
Bikol Nagturuhukan sinda.

“They were in love with one another.”

Sugbuhanon Naghigugmáay sila.
Hiligaynon Nagahigugmaanay sila.[1]
Samarnon
Tagalog Nagmahalan sila.
Bikol Nagkasimuotan sinda. (1 group of lovers)
Nagkasimuruotan sinda. (several groups of lovers)

b. Intensive actions

“They cried and cried.”

Sugbuhanon Naghilákay sila.
Hiligaynon  
Samarnon  
Tagalog Nag-iyakan sila. (reciprocal)
Nangag-iyakan sila. (collective)
Bikol Nagparahiribi sinda. (intensive)
Naghiribian sinda. (reciprocal)
Nagparahiribian sinda (reciprocal intensive)
Nangaghiribi sinda (collective)
Nangaghiribian sinda (collective reciprocal)
Nangagparahiribi sinda (collective intensive)
Nangagparahiribian sinda (collective reciprocal intensive)

 

Sugbuhanon Naghikayay sila kay pista ugmà.
English They were busy preparing because the fiesta was the following day.

It is possible that the original suffix is -anay since that is the long form of the affix plus Tagalog and Bikol counterpart form is -an. Although Wolff include "cry" in the intensive meaning, I think this has a reciprocal meaning in the sense of "to cry on one another’s (shoulder, etc.) ". Also I doubt if the "busily prepare" could also have a reciprocal meaning in the sense of being busy to one another, which I doubt if that happens normally.  Because this affix has an intensive meaning in both Sugbuhanon and  Tagalog if the action word imply an action that is not directed towards another agent ( busy) ,  I am lead to believe that in these languages, this affix is acquiring a non-reciprocal meaning . Notice that Bikol has an additional suffix -Vr- for all verbs to indicate  pluractionality in verbs, except nagkasimuotan since its base word "kasimuot" is a collective verb or an action derived from a set of actors acting as a group.

-anay is also found in Kiniray-a, Hanunuo,

15. Abilitative : –KA- Affix

sugbuhanon has naka-, nagaca-, nagapaka-

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

All the languages have the Abilitative affix, which indicates that the action is possible or able to happen or able to have happened, according to Zorc.

The forms for Bikol and Tagalog:

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect Actor Orientation nagka…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
Begun Progressive Aspect Actor Orientation nagka.R…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect Actor Orientation magka…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
Actor Orientation
magka.R…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
Begun NonProgressive Aspect NonActor Orientation naka…..
nakapag…..
ikina-…..
ikinapag-…..
kina……
*kinapag……
kina…..an
*kinapag…..an
Begun Progressive Aspect NonActor Orientation naka.R…..
nakapag.R…..
ikina.R…..
ikinapag.R…..
kina.R…..
*kinapag.R…..
kina.R…..an
*kinapag.R…..an
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect
NonActor Orientation
maka…..
makapag…..
ika…..
ikapag…..
ka……
*kapag……
ka…..an
*kapag…..an
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
NonActor Orientation
maka.R…..
makapag.R…..
ika.R…..
ikapag.R…..
ka.R…..
*kapag.R…..
ka.R…..an
*kapag.R…..an
Prospective Aspect
UnBegun Aspect
NonActor Orientation
[ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]
Participle paka….      
Verb Root sample tapos (finish) saya (happy)

The forms for Aklanon, Sugbuhanon, Hiligaynon, Samarnon, Kiniray-a: (no aspect distinction).

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun Aspect
Actor Orientation
nagka….. kinag…..
UnBegun Aspect
Actor Orientation
magka…..
Begun Aspect
NonActor Orientation
naka…..
nakag…..
kina…..
nai…..
naha……na…..
ha…..
naha…..an
na…..an
ha…..an
(na)ha…..i
UnBegun Aspect
NonActor Orientation
maka…..
ika…..
maha…… maha…..an
Prospective Aspect
UnBegun Aspect
NonActor Orientation
[ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]
Participle pagka….
paka….

show Aklanon of panga- which according to Zorc is from pangka-.

16. Cooperative Action: –SIG- Prefix

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

I think this its two affixes –si- + –g-. This prefix is found in combination in Aklanon, such as:

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun Aspect
Actor Orientation
nasig…..(?) [ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Aspect
Actor Orientation
masig….. [ø] [ø] [ø]
Participle pasig….(?) [ø] [ø] [ø]
Begun Aspect
Actor Orientation
nagsi…..(?)
[ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Aspect
Actor Orientation
magsi..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
Participle pagsi…..(?) [ø] [ø] [ø]
Begun Aspect
Actor Orientation
nagsig…..(?) [ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Aspect
Actor Orientation
magsig…..(?) [ø] [ø] [ø]
Participle pagsig….(?) [ø] [ø] [ø]
Begun Aspect
Actor Orientation
nansig…..(?)
[ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Aspect
Actor Orientation
mansig..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
Participle pansig…..(?) [ø] [ø] [ø]
Begun Aspect
Actor Orientation
natsig…..(?)
[ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Aspect
Actor Orientation
matsig..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
Participle patsig…..(?) [ø] [ø] [ø]

According to Zorc, –sig- has distributive meaning with respect to the actors, thus the subject is obligatorily plural. T he difference with mang- which is also distributive with respect to objects, thus the objects are obligatorily plural. These two can be combined  (mansig-) meaning “a type of helter-skelter distribution of both the subjects and the objects, with little or no cooperation or agreement going on between the actors).

Aklanon Aklanon
obra work magsiobra each must do his own work
himos clean up masighimos each cleans up his own space
hambaɣ speak, talk sihambaɣ speak together, hubub
hambaɣ speak, talk mansighambaɣ many speaking as they wish, with no accord or cooperation, a melee.
dugaling independent matsigdugaling eachone does something his own way.

The form that is present in Tagalog is only magsi-.

This is found in Hiligaynon, Hanunuo

17.  >??: -KIG- Affix

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

(-ki+g-)

naki-

Some of the Bisayan languages forms are shortcuts or constractions of ki+pag > -kig-

nakipag- nakig-
makipag- makig-
pakipag- pakig-

The forms for Bikol and Tagalog:

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect NonActor Orientation naki…..
nakipag…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
Begun Progressive Aspect NonActor Orientation naki.R…..
nakipag.R…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect
NonActor
Orientation
maki…..
makipag…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
NonActor
Orientation
maki.R…..
makipag.R…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Prospective Aspect
NonActor
Orientation
[ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]
Participle paki.R…..
pakipag.R…..

The forms for Aklanon, Sugbuhanon, Hiligaynon, Samarnon, Kiniray-a: (no aspect distinction).

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun Aspect
NonActor Orientation
naki…..
nakig…..
[ø] [ø] [ø]
UnBegun Aspect
NonActor Orientation
maki…..
makig…..
[ø]
[ø] [ø]
UnBegun Prospective Aspect
NonActor
Orientation
[ø] [ø] [ø] [ø]
Participle pagki….
pagkig….

According to Zorc, pakig- shows a pursuit after or a striving for something.

According to Zorc, the makipag- affixes give the mood of instigating an action with or seeking mutuality with another person. Nouns with pakig- shows pursuit after or a striving for something.

Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
pakig-iba the act of seeking companions Pakiki(pag)sama Pakiki(pag-)iba
pakig-amigo the act of getting friends Pakiki(pag)kaibigan Pakiki(pag)katood

Examples:

Aklanon Naila ako makighambaɣ kimo.
Tagalog Nais kong makipag-usap sayo.
Bikol Sono kong makipag-ulay saimo.
English I would like to talk to you.

 

Aklanon Nakighibayag imaw kakon.
Tagalog Nakipag-tawanan siya sa akin.
Bikol Nakipag-ngirisihan siya sa sakuya.
English He laughed with me.

18. Accidental or Happenstance : (MA)HI- Affix

Sugbuhnon has nasighi-, nanhi- and nahi-

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

According to Zorc, the mahi- prefix “states the action-as accidentally taking place or taking place completely by chance”. Here’s the inflection chart for this affix in Aklanon. The na- are mostly found on deep or archaic use.

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (na)hi…..
(na)hi…..
(na)hi…..
(na)hi…..an
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect (ma)hi…..
(ma)hi…..
(ma)hi…..
(ma)hi…..an
Participle paghi-

Usage as follows:

Aklanon Basi hiadto ka sa bueangan.
Tagalog *Baka [……] ka sa sabungan.
Bikol *Baka [……] ka sa bulangan.
English Maybe you might go to the cockfight.

 

Aklanon Maeaka hikit-an, maeumo hilipatan.
Tagalog *Mangilan-ngilang [makita], madaling [makalimutan]
Bikol *Bihirang [mahiling], madaling [malingawan]
English Seldom seen, easily forgotten.

Tagalog and Bikol uses thema- instead of the hi- prefix.

19. ?? :  (MA)HA- Affix

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

In Zorc’s verbal inflection chart, this affix is an abilitative affix with an objective Orientation, unlike the maka- which has a subject Orientation.

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect naka…..
nakag…..
kina…..
kinag…..
nai…..
naha……na…..
ha…..
naha…..an
na…..an
ha…..an
(na)ha…..i
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect maka…..
ika…..
maha…… maha…..an
Participle pagka….

20. ?? : Manum-  Affix

also tagalog manum-balilk

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

21. Causative : PA- Affix

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

Adding pa- according to Zorc, changes the verb: instead of direct actor, there will be a causer, instead of directly doing an action, a person has the action done or let it occur.

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (-in-) nagpa…..
pa.um…..(?)
ginpa…..
pina…..(?)
ginpa……
pina…..(?)
ginpa…..an
pina…..an(?)
Begun Progressive Aspect (-in-) nagapa…..
gapa…..(?)
ginapa….. ginapa….. ginapa…..an
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect magpa…..
gapa…..(?)
ipa….. pa……on pa……an
UnBegun Progressive Aspect magapa….. igapa….. (paga)pa…..on(?) (paga)pa…..an(?)
UnBegun Prospective Aspect (-nu-) manogpa…..(?) inogpa…..(?) pa.Vɣ…..on (?) pa.Vɣ…..an (?)
Participle pagpa…… inogpa……(?) [ø] [ø]

I have put (?) after those forms that I have not encountered an example in Zorcs.

This pa- affix can be added as well on the Imperative and other affixes: pa….a.

 

In the pa> affix, Sugbuhanon has 3 forms: present/preterite, future and imperative. In Hiligaynon and Samarnon, present and future have also reduplicated forms.

pa> prefix Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Samarnon
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative) pa> (also mapa>) pa> (also mapa>) pa> (also mapa>)
UnBegun Progressive Aspect (Future) mapa> (also pa>) mapa> (also pa>)
mapapa>
mapa- (also pa>)
mapapa>
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (Past) napa> napa> napa>
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present) napa> napa>
napapa>
napa>
napapa>

 

22. Causative Distributive: –PANG- Affix

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

The Distributive Affix. According to Zorc, the action is distributed through time, or among several people or objects., or is made into a process . The pang- affixes fuses with the root word, except hose starting h…..

Affix ma- i- -on -an
Begun NonProgressive Aspect (-in-) nagpang…..
pang.um…..(?)
ginpang…..(?)
pinang…..(?)
ginpang……(?)
pinang…..(?)
ginpang…..an
pinang…..an(?)
Begun Progressive Aspect (-in-) nagapang…..
gapang…..(?)
ginapa…..(?) ginapang…..(?) ginapang…..an(?)
UnBegun NonProgressive Aspect magpang…..(?)
gapang…..(?)
ipang….. pang……on pang……an(?)
UnBegun Progressive Aspect magapang…..(?) igapang…..(?) (paga)pang…..on(?) (paga)pang…..an(?)
UnBegun Prospective Aspect (-nu-) manogpang…..(?) inogpang…..(?) pang.Vɣ…..on (?) pang.Vɣ…..an (?)
Participle pagpang……(?) inogpang……(?) [ø] [ø]

Can also be added to other Affixes: Abilitative : Makapang….., Nahapang….

23. Causative ?? : –PAG- Affix

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

24. ?? : HING- Affix

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Aklanon Kiniray-a Tagalog Samarnon Bikol
UnBegun  NonProgressive Aspect (Imperative)              
UnBegun Progressive Aspect
(
Future)
             
Begun NonProgressive Aspect
(
Past)
             
Begun Progressive Aspect (Present)              

25. –ad– Directional Affix

In Aklanon, affixed to deictics or direction words.

iya here [near me] -ariya arrive, come here
una there [near you] -aruna go near you
inha there [near you but far from me] -arinha go there
idto there [far away] -adto go [away]

Bikol madiya /madya “Come here!” seems to be related to Aklanon ariya, so is Tagalog adya “deliverance, help”, which connotes “to come to one’s protection”. Furthermore, Tagalog has adyo “to go uptairs” which seems to be the counterpart of Aklanon adto. Furthermore, since Bikol seems to imply that the form of the affix is really mad- , this could be another form of mag-. In Ilokano, mag- has a form ag-, and the Ilokano reflex of –R- is normally –r-: Bikol,

could this be an affix complex? ma<d>, or just a form of the afix  mag + di- locative demonstratives, with the mag- shortened to ag- like in Ilokano?

Tagalog “dugo”, Ilokano "dara” (blood).

Aklanon examples of these forms:

Aklanon Siin do imong ginaaftunan?
Tagalog
Bikol
English Where is the place you are going to?

 

Aklanon Paariyaha gid imaw.
Tagalog
Bikol
English Make him come here.

=======================

1.  In general, the affixes used in active verbs are the same, with the following differences. I will include comments about these affixes below (to follow).

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Samarnon
Found only in this language mangi- mangin-, manum-, mapat-,
masagin-
mai-
mati-
Not found magin- mahi- makag-
manag-
manig-
Corresponds to manig manik-/mani-  
Corresponds to masig- masig- magsi-

I can’t find in Samarnon an instance of the prefix mai- or mati-, but I found instances of makag- (makagpadayun Luke 11:18, makagyakan Mark 1:34, makagiwa, makagtingog Acts 9:7 etc.) , manag (panagtawo Luke 14:24, 5:29), manig- (panigamnan? Rev 11:8), also magsi- (magsihigugmaay Juan 13:34-35

Hiligaynon:

mangin- : manginhari Mateo 2:2 etc.

mahi- : mahimayaon Mark 10:37, mahidaiton Luke 10:6

,asig- : masigkaalagad Col 4:7

Sugbuhanon

manig- : manig-ingon : 1 Cor 7:7

masig- : masigkaulipon Mat 24:49, masigkabana Eph 5:24, masigkamagbubuhat 2 Cor 8:23

 

 

 

  Sugbuhanon Hiligaynon Samarnon Tagalog Bikol
Juan 13:34-35
love one another
paghigugmaay
maghigugmaay
maghigugmaanay
nagahigugmaanay
magsihigugmaay mag+ibigan
mag+iibigan
magkaminorootan
(Marcos 9:42, Mateo 18:9, Lukas 17:2) manginkabangdanan matinikangan  tikang = to start, begin maging magin dahelan
Mateo 5:48 magmanginhimpit (adj?) magpakamatanos
MATEO 6:5
magmanginkaangay (adj?) pag-arogon
JUAN 3:30
magmangindaku (adj?) magdakula
MATEO 5:32
nagpanginlalaki, nangangalunya nagpasambay
MATEO 5:27
magpanginbabayi ukon magpanginlalaki mangangalunya magdorog sa bako mong agom
2 CORINTO 5:15
Nagpanginmatay Namatay nagadan
BINUHATAN 16:28,
ROMA 5:7
magpanginmatay saktan ang iyong sarili,
ialay ninuman ang kanyang buhay
maghugot,
magpagadan

 http://scholarship.rice.edu/bitstream/handle/1911/19215/9727610.PDF?sequence=1

 http://www.sil.org/asia/Philippines/sipl/SIPL_8-1_091-097.pdf

http://www.languagelinks.org/onlinepapers/fil_cbstd2.html

https://archive.org/details/Waray-warayDictionary

http://www.binisaya.com/content/aspectual-affixes-cebuano-verbs

http://www.binisaya.com/content/cebuano-affixes

https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxwaW5veWRpY3Rpb25hcnl8Z3g6NTA3MjcwOGVlZWIwOTRmYQ

https://sites.google.com/site/pinoydictionary/

http://www.binisaya.com/content/affixes-used-cebuano

One Response to “Bisayan Languages, Part 1”


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