Is there a gi(n)– prefix in Bikol?
|mata||noun||eye||gimata||verb||be aware of,
to have something dawn on you
|tubo||verb||grow||gintubo||noun||a slave born in one’s own house,
an inherited slave
|hawa||verb||to impart, to spread something||ginhawa||noun||breath, respiration|
EDIT: hawa as a root word seems to be corroborated by Pangasinan, where it means ‘have sufficient space, time, etc.’ shown in Austronesian Comparative Dictionary. The nihawa vs. hinawa forms are the different forms of affixing -in-, which could be ni- as well.
As for its meaning, gin– could have a meaning like that of Patient focus affix (Cebuano has a verb prefix gi(n)– ) or Location focus affix for gin– –an. Thus, gimata as a verb literally means ‘to be awakened’, and figuratively means ‘to be aware of things in the world when you come to your senses’. If used nominally, it means ‘things that already exists when you come to your senses’. Girumdum as a verb means to remember something . Nominally, it means something remembered, or memory. Gintubo as a verb means to grow something, and nominally means something grown, thus homegrown. Ginhawa as a verb means ‘to impart/expand something from one thing to another or other things’. Nominally it means ‘something that is imparted/expanded unto other things from another’, thus breath (it can be physically imparted) and by extension respiration.’
The only problem I see here is that gin– is not an extant Bikol verbal affix, but does exists in Bisayan languages. Does it mean these words are borrowings from Bisayan? Or it exists in the proto language? or there used to be this prefix in Bikol as well? Bikol now has pig– rathen than gin– prefix. Noticeably, gin– prefix could possibly be a prefix (g-) and an infix (-in-), with the infix still existing in Bikol with a Realis Mood meaning. If this is the case, then is the prefix (g-) related to the –g– in mag-? Recall that Bikol (as well as other Philippine languages) have transitive sentences of 2 types by argument focusing according to Dixon and Aikhenvald, with mag– in the Actor Focused (AF) type and the possible gin– in the Non-Actor Focused (NAF) type of transitive? Does the prefix (g-) means some other thing, like a control marker? Those NAF transitives that uses –in– instead of gin– could be in “out of control” like some Salishan verbs? Thus the distinction between NAF affixes –in– vs. gin– is the same between AF affixes ma– vs. mag-? This is a very good avenue to explore in the future.
Some other words with a supposedly gi(n)– prefix are the following, although looking for their word stems would be difficult so I put ‘?’ to indicate doubt. I can’t explain their meanings without proper identification of word stems.
|?||gilantas||to be terrified|
|giraray||adverb||again , over again|
|?pungo||noun||butt or stub of something||gimpungunan||noun||old hen that has laid many eggs|
In Tagalog, there are some words that could possibly be of the same morphology.
|?||gitata||wet sticky dirt|
|?kupal||smegma||gipalpal||thick hard dirt|
|?upos||butt or stub of something that burns||gipuspos||very low spirited|
|?hagis||throw||giyagis||affected by, turtored by|