Pluractionality or Iterativity in Aklanon?

I’ve  come across a work by David Zorc in 1968, “A Study of Aklanon Dialect” and I found his description of Aklanon characteristics quite interesting. I am particularly interested in the –eV- progressive infix mentioned there. The infix means that “the action is continually going on; it pluralizes the action itself and shows its constant recurrence, adding the sense of ‘always’ to the verb”. As Aklanon’s “e” is the written representation of voiced velar fricative , I will use instead the IPA symbol “ɣ” , so will replace all “e” with “ɣ” in his examples. This sound has an –l- allomorph if followed by -i- as illustrated below.

ɣaga boil in water linaga boiled in water
ɣahug naughty, misbehaved linahug acting naughty, misbehaving
ɣumot moss linumot covered with moss

For me, the form of the infix is –-, rather than –ɣV-.

The reason I find this interesting is that superficially, this is the same –Vr– infix found in Bikol, as I have mentioned here.

In Aklanon, this infix can be combined with the following affixes below:

Aklanon Word Stem English
Affix Word Base
Lexical Categroy
Affixed Form
Bikol form
saka climb
come up/in
adj saka always coming up *sarakat
bakaɣ buy adj bakaɣ always buying *barakal
manghod sibling
mag- noun magmanghod sibling
amigo friend mag- noun magamigo friend
busog full feeling maka- adj makabusog filling, makes one satisfied makababasug,
duyog sleep maka- adj makaduɣuyog soperific, makes one sleepy makatuturog,
hilo poison maka- adj makahiɣilo poisonous makahihilo,
ohaw sad maka- adj makaoɣohaw makes you sad makamumundo,
sakit pain maka- adj makasaɣakit painful, makes you sick makasakulog
subo sad maka- adj makasuɣubo makes you sad makamumundo,
tapon maka- adj makataɣapon contiguous makauulakit
bati feel -an noun baɣatian sickness maration
bitay hang -an noun bilitayan gallows *biritayan
butho study -an noun buɣuthoan school *aradalan
hampang play -an noun haɣampangan playground *karawatan
ihi urine -an noun ilihian urinal *irihian
sunod follow -an noun suɣundan ruler, leader
tuon study -an noun tuɣunan book
tubod gush -an noun tuɣubdan spout
bakaɣ buy -on noun baɣakaɣon things to be bought barakalon
basa read -on noun baɣasaon reading materials barasahon
buhat do, work -on noun buɣuhaton things to be done giribohon
batyag feel -on noun baɣatyagon feelings, emotions maration
sugo order, command -on noun suɣuguon servant surugoon
ani harvest tig- noun tig-aɣani harvest time tig-arani
buɣak flower tig- noun tigbuɣuɣak flower season tigbururak
gutom hunger tig- noun tigguɣutom famine tiggurutom
dagan run tig- noun tigdaɣagan war,
time for running
silak sunny? tig- noun tigsililak sunny season, summer tig-init
tanum plant tig- noun tigtaɣanum planting season tigtaranom
aɣom cloud tig- noun tigaɣaɣom cloudy season, stormy season
sunod follow -um- noun sumuɣunod follower, disciple *sumurunod
tambung attend, witness -um- noun tumaɣambung audience, gathering *
uɣan rain -in- noun ilinuɣan continuous downpour of rain *inururan (verb)
hambaɣ talk, speak -in- noun hilinambaɣ continuous talking, unending chatter *tinararam (verb)
patay die -ka- noun nagkamatay were all dying nagkagaradan (verb)
libak gossip pa- noun palibak habitual gossiper paralibak
kahoy wood pang- noun nagpangahoy were gathering wood *nagparangahoy
ahoy (verb)

Zorc mentioned that if combined with [ mag- ] prefix, it “pluralizes the members of the relationship and indicates a relationship of 3 or more people.” I think that is an incomplete way of looking at it. It actually pluralizes the relationships, not directly the members of the relationships. Of course if the relations are pluralized, the members in such are indirectly increased. The minimal requirement of at least 3 members flows from the plural relationships.

The rule for the infix is to insert it after the first consonant of the root word. Most of the time, this holds in both Bikol and Aklanon, whether with other combining affixes or not. But for some combining infixes [-in-, -pa-, -pang-, –ka-], the order is different in Bikol and Aklanon or maybe Bikol and Aklanon differs in treating which is the base word. Compare Bikol [ gadan >  nagka+garadan] vs Aklanon [ patay > nag+kamatay]. Bikol infixes [-Vr-] to the root word, while Aklanon infixes [-Vɣ-] to the word stem (root word plus other affixes). In the word stem with [-in-] affix, Bikol infixes first the [-Vr-] to the root word, then the [–in-] to the word stem, Aklanon the reverse. Compare Bikol [ taram > tararam > tinararam ] to Aklanon [ hambaɣ > hinambaɣ > hilinambaɣ ]. Is this because in Bikol the forms [*tinararam, *inururan ] are verbs after infixing [-Vr-], while in Aklanon [ hilinambaɣ, ilinuɣan ] they are verbs before infixing [-Vɣ-]  and are now nouns or adjectives? Does it mean that if deriving a verb, the order is to infix first the [-Vɣ-] then the [–in-] like a verb then change the stress to convert the word to a noun, like what happened to the infix [–um-] in Aklanon [ sunod > suɣunod? > sumuɣunod; with stress change? ] which follows the Bikol [ sunod > surunod > sumurunod]? And are Aklanon’s [ hilinambaɣ, ilinuɣan, kamatay] nouns or adjectives?

However, why does Bikol shows similarity to Aklanon if the affix is [pang-] but not for [pa-] (paralibak, not *paliribak) ? Is it because [pang-] is used in Bikol but without the meaning of distributive action (like Tagalog pangangahoy), only instrumental/purposive meaning (pamunas “rag”; panipit “clothespin” ;pangkawat “”sportswear”; panlangoy “swimsuit, swimming attire”, etc.)? The para-, parang- forms in Aklanon somehow reminds me of the [marag-/parag-] affixes in Dupaningan Agta which has a habitual meaning, or the Ilokano [manag-/manang-] (also discussed here by Carl Rubino as the frequentative series mannaki-/mannaka-/manang-/manag-). Is it possible also that Tagalog and Bikol dstributive [mangag-] is related to the Ilokano [manag-]?

If in Aklanon the combination with –in- means ‘continuous action’, then the Bikol form will have to be ‘pagpara…Vr…’.  Tinararam simply means ‘things said’ and inururan means ‘things rained on/upon’. Those verbs does not indicate continuous actions in Bikol; to show continuous action, Bikol adds pagpara-.

If combined with maka- “something to put something/someone in a state of’, Aklanon pluralizes the action since the state is thought of as happening at different times. In Bikol does not add the –Vr– infix, since there is no multiple action or state happening at the same time, the verb is stative, the state does not wax and wane but is instead continuous, thus Bikol reduplicates the base word to show Progressive aspect, meaning to be in the middle of such a state: just a single moment in time.

Same with the -an suffix, Aklanon conceptualizes of the action as being done repeatedly in the indicated place. This form is used in Bikol as well but not in the sense of place, but time period to do those actions. Thus in Aklanon ilihian means ‘urinal’ , the place where multiple urination happens at different times, while Bikol irihian means ‘time when multiple people can urinate’. If referring to the place, Bikol does not add the –Vr– infix. We can see that in Bikol, the plural action has to happen at the same time (simultaneity is important), while in Aklanon, it can happen at different times (simultaneity is not important). In Bikol non-simultaneous plural action is iterativity, where you have to use  para- and taga- affixes to indicate such. Thus ‘always buying’ in Aklanon is bakaɣ, in Bikol it is parabakal. A simultaneous as well as consecutive pluractional verb is exemplified by the following conjugation in Bikol: nagpaparabarakal / nagparabarakal / magpaparabarakal / magparabarakal, and of course there are other forms (e.g. magparabarakalbakal, etc.). I have not encountered an instance in the description of Aklanon where you can use pa– and –Vɣ– on the same root word; if there is in actual usage, please put it in the comment below with some remarks on its usage. This makes me think that Aklanon does not distinguish iterativity and pluractionality like Bikol,but only iterativity.

The Bikol form tig- is sometimes replaced by the Tagalog tag-, thus does not show the –Vr– infix.

This pluractional infix is also used  to shortcut full word reduplication to show diminutive when the first syllable is accented. Bikol and Aklanon shows no difference here, except that in Aklanon, the second vowel is elided:  luɣolamesa >  luɣlamesa,  yuɣoyaw-anay > yuɣyaw-anay.

Aklanon Bikol
buɣobarko toy boat buro-barko
huɣohambaɣ repartee uro-urulay
buɣobaroto toy banca buro-baruto
luɣlamesa makeshift table luro-lamesa
tuɣotawohan small population
yuɣyaw-anay procrastination pagpa-uro-atyan

One thing that I have not encountered in the description of Aklanon is the use of –Vr– for plural formation of one class of adjectives, like the following in Bikol:

Bikol Singular Bikol Plural
dry mara marara
ripe hinog hirinog
alive buhay buruhay

Now, a final question that I have is, why the allomorph is ‘l’, and not some other consonant? Hmmm… let’s explore that in the future.


One Response to “Pluractionality or Iterativity in Aklanon?”

  1. Bisayan Languages | Raчraч Ŋuɲan's Weblog Says:

    […] Pluractionality or Iterativity in Aklanon? […]

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