Filipino Personal Pronouns

I accidentally come accross this Botolan Sambal personal pronoun series and I was quite struck with the regularity of the nominative series:

Number Person Nominative
Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) hiko -ako/-ko ko kongko
  1+2 (dual) hita -ta ta konta
2(singular) hika -ka mo komo
3 (singular) hiya -ya na kona
Augmented 1 (plural) hikayi -kayi nawen konnawen
1+2 (plural) hitamo -tamo tamo kontamo
2 (plural) hikawo -kawo moyo, yo komoyo
3 (plural) hila -hila la konla

Notice that all the Full Nominative personal pronouns starts with hi-, which was originally si-. Also the Oblique series all starts with k-.

This reminds me as well of the Hanunoo Mangyan personal pronoun series where the Genitive all starts with ni-, as well as the Bisayan languages:

Number Person Nominative
Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako niko kangko
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) kawo nimo kanmo
3 (singular) siya niya kanya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita, ta nita kanta
1+2 (plural) kami nimi kanmi
2 (plural) siyu niyu kanyu
3 (plural) sida nida kanda

Samarnon has the following pronoun series:

Number Person Nominative
Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako/ak nakon/nak/ko akon/ak
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) ikaw/ka nimo/nin/mo imo/im
3 (singular) siya,hiya niya iya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita/ta
naton aton/at
1+2 (plural) kami
namon amon
2 (plural) kamo/kam niyu iyo
3 (plural) sila/hira nira ira

Sugbuhanon has this pronoun series.

Number Person Nominative
Minimal 1 (singular) ako/ko ako/akoha nako/ko nako/kanako
1+2 (dual) * * * *
2 (singular) ikaw/ka imo/imoa nimo/mo nimo/kanimo
3 (singular) siya, sya iya/iyaha niya niya/kaniya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita/ta ato/atoa nato nato/kanato
1+2 (plural) kami/mi amo/amoa namo namo/kanamo
2 (plural) kamo inyo/inyoha ninyu ninyo/kaninyo
3 (plural) sila ila/ilaha nila nila/kanila

Kapampangan , on the other hand, has nominative series that starts with i-, which would be the equivalent Topic series in Amis below:

Number Person Nominative
Nominative(enclitic) Genitive
Minimal 1 (singular) iaku/aku ku ku kanako, kaku
1+2 (dual) ikata kata, ta ta kekata
2 (singular) ika ka mu keka
3 (singular) iya, ya ya na kaya/keya
Plural 1 (plural) ikatamo, itamo katamu, tamu tamu, ta kekatamu, kekata
1+2 (plural) ikami, ike kami, ke mi kekami, keke
2 (plural) ikayu, iko kayu, ko yu kekayu, keko
3 (plural) ila la da, ra karela

Amis personal pronoun series is like this:

Number Person Nominative
Minimal 1 (singular) kako nako
itakoan ako
1+2 (dual)
2 (singular) kiso niso
itisoan iso
3 (singular) cira nira iciraan cira
Augmented 1 plural) kita mita
itamian ita
1+2 (plural) kami niam
ititaan ami
2  (plural) kamo namo
itamoan amo
3 (plural) kohni nohni
itohnian ohni

With this info, we can now construct a Filipino auxlang with a regular pronoun series such as: (* found in a natural language, same case, # found in a natural language, different case)

Number Person Nominative
(enclitic) Genitive
Objective [ki]
(Dative /
Minimal 1 (singular) siko* -ko niko* kiko diko iko
1+2 (dual) sita* -ta nita* kita# dita ita*
2 (singular) simo# -mo nimo* kimo dimo imo#
3 (singular) siya* -ya niya* kiya* diya iya#
Augmented 1 (plural) sito to nito kito dito ito
1+2 (plural) simi -mi nimi* kimi dimi imi
2 (plural) siyo* -yo niyo* kiyo diyo iyo
3 (plural) sira* -ra nira* kira* dira ira#

The Genitive prefix was assigned to ni– since its the most commonly used prefix for this case, same for si– .

The enclitic form’s case is dependent on the focus of the verb. If actor focus (AF), its Nominative, if it’s Non-actor Focus (NAF), its Genitive.

[di-] was chosen for Locative case since it patterns after demonstratives and locative case marker di. From Reid’s:


The Oblique starts with [ki-] since Kapampangan oblique case marker common singular is “king”, Bikol singular proper noun marker is “ki”; the ka- prefixed is from “kay”. 




Also, Northern Catanduanes, one of Bikol varieties, uses ki– in a few Oblique pronouns:

Number Person Nominative Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako ko ako
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) ka mo imo
3 (singular) siya niya kiya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita nato ato
1+2 (plural) kami namo amo
2 (plural) kamo ninyo inyo
3 (plural) sila nila kila

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