Bisayan Languages, Part 2

Nominal Affixes

1. There is no plural forms in Aklanon (other Bisayan?) for verbs and adjectives, unlike adjectives for Tagalog [magaganda, matataas ] and Bikol [magagayon, haralangkaw] and verbs for Bikol [ nagraralakaw]. but Aklanon has plural forms of the Common case markers:

Singular Plural
ro/do rong/dong
ku kong

2. Shared Affixes. 

(a) Bisayan, Tagalog and Bikol have the ability to form nouns with focus affixes –in-, –on, –an.

The –in- infix indicate that nature or constant recurrence of an action or state.

Tagalog Bikol Aklanon
act like a woman , effeminate man -in- binabae binabahi binabayi
acting, like carabao -in- Kinalabaw Dinamulag inanwang
In spanish -in- Kinastila Kinastila Kinastila
group of months -in- binulan binulan *
church -an simbahan simbahan simbahan
bathroom -an paliguan parigosan paligosan
sleeping place -an eugban turogan tulogan
origin -in-an ginikanan ginikanan pinagmulan
clean laundry -in-an linabahan linabahan linabhan

(b) Also shared are the affixes: pag-, pagka-, pang-, mag- (for relationships) , ka-, ka—an, pa-., paka-, pina-, paki-, taga- (origin from a place, etc.)

3. –Vr- / -Vɣ affix

(a) Bikol and Aklanon share the –Vr- / -Vɣ– affix respectively to form some plural nouns. Tagalog does not have this, or somethings reduplicates the root word.

Aklanon Bikol Tagalog
things to be bought baɣakeon barakalon bilihin
reading materials baɣasahon barasahon babasahin
servant suɣugoon suruguon utusan

(b) Bikol and Aklanon share the -uro-/–Vɣo- affix respectively in forming imitative nouns that has (i) 3 syllable root, or (ii) 2 syllbale root with closed initial syllable. Tagalog does not have this:

Aklanon Bikol Tagalog
makeshift table luɣlamesa lurolamesa mesamesa
toy boat buɣobarko burobarko barkobarkohan
toy banca buɣobaroto burobaroto bankabankaan

(c) Aklanon has use of –umVɣ– affix that is not found in Bikol:

sumuɣunod follower, disciple
tumaɣambung audience, gathering

(d) Aklanon also has this not found in Bikol:

igdaɣapat utensil

(e) Both Bikol and Aklanon respectively has mag- + -uro-/–Vɣo- for plural nouns of relationships. Tagalog does not have this, using reduplication instead.

Aklanon Bikol Tagalog
brothers and sisters magmaɣanghod magturogang magkakapatid
friends magaɣamigo magkaturood,

aklanon has pinang-?

4. KA- affix

Aklanon seems to be able to form nouns with verbs to mean “the time of the state achieved with the verb” , but not Tagalog or Bikol.

musingmusing kamusingmusing nagamusingmusing nagakamusingmusing
tuɣog matuɣog katuɣog nagakatuɣog
ila kaila nagakaila
huɣog kahuɣog nagkahuɣog

Here are the Aklanon forms nouns that in Bikol or Tagalog the counterpart has pagka-. Seems like Aklanon dropped the pag-.

  Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
weight kabug-at bigat
length kahaba haba
blackness kaitum pagkaitim
redness kapuɣa pagkapula
height kataas taas
sweetness katam-is pagkatamis

Ka….an seems to be not the exact equivalent of ka…..(quality of being, without reference to location, time or absoluteness) since one of its possibe meaning is (a) the location with the highest quantity of the root meaning. This is the meaning, intensive, of ka- in Aklanon. This is the reason why kapulahan and kaituman / kaitiman does not mean redness or blackness, respectively, but the spot (spatiotemporal) where such is found. This is also the meaning in Aklanon of ka….an. This is because of the locative ….an suffix , so the right affix is just ka…. and Bikol/Tagalog ka…an is not the direct equivalent. Bikol and Tagalog can also use the bare root to mean height, weight and length, but not for redness, blackness or sweetness. This could be because the bare root of height, weight and length is a stative verb, while that for redness, blackness or sweetness is an adjective noun. Another possible meaning of ka…an is (b) having an extreme/unusual degree or lots of the root meaning. In either case, ka….an seems to be not the original affix for “-ness/-th”.

So we can have the following probable original declension:

pagkapula redness Tagalog
mapula having red, being red Tagalog
pula red Tagalog
pulahan spot that’s most red  Tagalog
kapula very intense red (intensive) Aklanon
kapulahan spot of most intense red Tagalog
napakapula was made to be very intense red Tagalog
pinakapula was made to be very intense red Tagalog

Aklanon also has ka…on which are not in Bikol or Tagalog:

Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
hunger kagutomon kagutoman kagutoman
thirst kaohawon kauhawan kapahaan
death kamatayon kamatayan kagadanan
one’s psyche, will kabubut-on kalooban kabuotan
foolishness kaumangon kamangmangan kamangmangan
sleep katuɣogon pagkatulog katurogan

With an ….on suffix, this would be referring to the recipient  of the action of the root word. Notice that the root words involve are mostly about things the body undergoes and has no control, but not emotion (which has –an: kasubo-an, kalipayan). It seems to me that the word stem includes the ….on suffix, then prefixed with ka….. gutom (hungry) > gutomon ( be hungry ) > kagutomon (that point in time of being hungry).

Another combination is kina- , which in Tagalog would be kina—an, in Bikol ka…an. This seems to be prefixed with ka…. , then infixed with .in….., meaning “having gone through the state of; having been”

Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
one’s wisdom kinaaɣam kinalaman kadunungan
one’s total life kinabuhi kinabuhayan
ones’ needs kinahangɣan kailangan
basic objection kinasaway *
sone’s accumulated skills kinaadman kinalaman kaaraman
one’s birthday kinatawohan kapanganakan pagkamundag

There are certain words where the –an suffix is doubled as the original one has lost its force (several examples in Zorc).

kasalanan sinfulness Tagalog
kasal-anan sinfulness Aklanon
kalisdanan hardships Aklanon

According to Zorc, “It is used with pa- to form paka-, with pang- to form panga -; it is also used with -in- to form kina-, and with –si-  to form the prefix kasing-.”

5. KAG– Affix

This Aklanon affix is equivalent to Bikol kag-. There is no equivalent in Tagalog.

Aklanon Bikol
homeowner, landlord tagbaɣay kagharong
creator, craftsman tagbuhat kaggibo
author, writer tagsuɣat kagsurat
tagana tagana kagsadiri

6. TIG– Affix.

This is equivalent to Bikol tig- and Tagalog tag-:

Aklanon Bikol Tagalog
harvest season tig-aɣani tig-arani tag-ani
flower season tigbuɣuɣak tigbururak tagbulaklak
famine tigguɣutom tiggurutom taggutom
planting season tigtaɣanum tigtaranum tagtanim


5. Reduplication Affix

This involves repetition of the first consonant and vowel of the root word. This is an instance of Progressive Aspect retention in Aklanon. According to Zorc, this is used with Future, Aptative and Accidental forms and means “Degree of possibility of.’action happening is les-sened to some degree”.

Aklanon Rayang tueon-an mababakae sa Briones Commercial.
Tagalog Ang librong ito mabibili sa Briones Commercial.
Bikol An librong ini mababakal sa Briones Commercial.
English This book can be bought at Briones Commercial.

Aklanon Abo ro akong naiinom.
Tagalog Madami ang aking naiinom.
Bikol Dakul an sakong naiinom.
English I was able to drink a great deal.

This reduplication also shows up in mang- and mag- affix to form occupation, the noun made form the verb shows the persons’ llivelihood or full time occupation. This is also found in Tagalog but not in Bikol.

Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
  bulig mamumulig * paratabang
  kahoy mangangahoy mangangahoy parakahoy
  uma mangunguma magbubukid parauma
  turo manunuro tagapagturo paratukdo
  bunit mamumunit mamimingwit parabanwit
  isda mangingisda mangingisda parasira
  sueat manunueat manunulat parasurat
  tahi mananahi mananahi paratahi
  Supreme Will magbubuot
  Creator magbubuhat manlalalang kaglalang
  Supreme Power maggagahom [ø] [ø]
  Giver of grace magbubugna [ø] [ø]
   Wielder of Eternal power makagagahom [ø] [ø]
  Possessor of Eternal Strength makakukusog [ø] [ø]

In Bikol, creation is not an occupation or some paid/earning activity or assigned function, so not possible to use *paralalang.

6. –NOG- Affix

Manog- forms nouns meaning “ the activity of a person is not totally characteristic of his occupation; the person does the action expressed in the root word as a part-time activity”, according to Zorc. Bikol taga– can sometimes have this meaning.

utang credit manogpautang part-time creditor tagapautang
tapos end manogtapos part-time an ender, person who brings a thing to a close tagatapos
bunit fishing tackle, rod manogbunit part-time angler tagabanwit
arado plow, plough manog-arado part-time plowman taga-arado
hambae talk manoghambae part-time lecturer tagataram
turo teach manogturo part-time tutor tagatukdo
sueat write manogsueat part-time author tagasurat
pakilaea introduce manogpakilaea part-time emcee tagapamidbid
limpyo clean manoglimpyo part-time cleaner tagalinig

-inog- relates a tool to a job.

bunit fishing tackel, rod inogbunit something used for line fishing
bus-ak chop wood inogbus-ak something used for splitting wood
hambae talk inoghambae something to say
limpyo clean inoglimpyo something used for cleaning
sueat write inogsueat something used in writing
turo teach inogturo a pointer, the index finger

7. –SIG- and -IG- Postpositive Prefix

Aklanon seems to be able to form nouns with this, but not Tagalog or Bikol. According to Zorc, –sig- has distributive meaning with respect to the actors, thus the subject is obligatorily plural.


show sample of pasi- for aklanon.

isigka– denote a “fellowship” relationship, (-i+si+g+ka-)

tawo person isigkatawo fellow man
pareho the same isigkapareho an equal; a fllow of the same class or status
lapit near isigkahilapit a neighbor
sangay namesake isigkasangay a person with the same name as another
klasi class isigkaklasi a classmate
unga isigkaunga a fellow child, a sibling
maestra teacher isigkamaestra a co-teacher; a fellow teacher
sakay ride isigkasakay a fellow passenger

ig– names a singular, specific relationship: (-i+g-)

kampud igkampud cousin
bata igbata relative
manghod igmanghod sibling
suon igsuon godbrother


8. –SING- Postpositive Prefix

According to Zorc, –sig- is also used to form the combination ka+sing- prefix in Aklanon, denoting something which come from the same source or pattern as the root word. But I can’t see the meaning of -sig- retained in ka+sing-. The Bikol expression below better explains the possible origin of ka+sing-, which is ka+siring- > ka+sing-.

Root word Affixed Word
baɣay house kasimaɣay someone coming from the same house; a housemate
barrio barrio kasimaryo someone coming from the same barrio; a barriomate
banwa town kasimanwa someone coming from the same barrio; a townmate
tuɣad similar kasintuɣad something coming from the same patter; an identical pattern

In Tagalog, this prefix ka+sing- (kasim-, kasin-, sing-, sin-) meaning “same as, as…” is still very much productive. Tagalog also has magsing-.

Tagalog Bikol
ganda beauty kasingganda / singganda as beautiful as siring kagayon
itim black kasing-itim / sing-itim as black as siring kaitom
bata young kasimbata / simbata as young as siring kaaki
puti white kasimputi  / simputi as white as siring kaputi
sama bad kasinsama / sinsama as bad as siring karaot
taas high kasintaas / sintaas as tall/high as siring kalangkaw

Comparing the Aklanon and Tagalog words, I think the affix does not mean “coming from” or “same as” but means “sharing the same thing as the meaning of root word”, producing those secondary meanings.

In Bikol, this is a frozen affix, found only in kahimanwa “townmate”. This could even be a borrowing from a Bisayan language that changed s > h, possibly Samarnon, since the Bikol equivalent expressions are different, as the table above shows.

I think the Bikol prefix mag+ka+si- is the closest to ka+sing-, in combination with mag- to form mag+ka+sing-. This is found in the word nagkasimuotan which is in this song, meaning “they both felt the same/equal love towards each other”. This was also recorded by Marco de Lisboa with the  meaning “same, equal” , such as magkasimaray “equally good” and magkasibulawan “both are gold”. 

As for pani(ng) being from pang + sig according to Zorc, I also think its better to think of this this as from pang+sing-, because the meaning is not transparently decomposable to –sig-. Tagalog has a mani- in manibugho, manibalang and manibago and this affix does not seem to have any trace of –sig- meaning. Bikol also has mani- prefix and seems not to be related to the –sig-.

baɣay house panimaɣay household
banwa town panimanwa citizenship
buot will panimuot one’s attitudes
panimud-on superstitious beliefs

9 -HING- Affix

The affix combines with pang- to form pang+hing-.

ngaɣan name panghingaɣan noun, name for all
paɣad palm panghimaɣad palmistry; fortune telling
puɣos value panghimuɣos taking advantage of
sakit pain panghinakit empathy

Tagalog has words that is formed with this affix:

bagsik fierceness himagsik rebellion, mutiny
pala grace himala miracle
palay rice himalay 2nd threshing of rice stalks to get grains missed in the first
baling incline towards himaling obsession, great liking, inclination
basbas bless himasmas regain consciousness after feinting/sleeping
pasok enter himasok interference, meddling, intrusion
patay die himatay feint, swoon
baybay move alongside or parallel to something as a  border or guide rail. himaymay fiber, thread
buko node, knob on a tree himuko pruning trees, looping off branches
bulbul feather, hair, fur himulmul plucking of feathers or fur
putok pop; a short, quick explosive sound himutok outcry of disappointment, distress
bukas to remove a covering, to uncover himukas removal of small fish adhering to a net
sakdal accusation hinakdal complaint, resentment
takot fear hinakot feeling of apprehension, misgiving
sagap something inhaled, caught hinagap notion, conjecture, wistful thinking
daing moan hinaing supplication, humble request
sala error, mistake hinala suspicion
tamad lazy hinamad stretching one’s arms due to feelings of laziness
tampo sulk, peeve, grouch hinampo a hurt feeling towards someone
sakit suffering,
hinanakit complaint against someone, gripe, grievance
sawa lose interest hinawa satiety, surfeit
sayang wasted, uselessly spent hinayang regret for not having used something; sense of loss
siksik to squeeze through, to force a way hiniksik picking of nits from hair
lisa nit hilisa picking of nits from hair
hinga breathe hininga breathe, respiration
tinga bits of food lodged between teeth hininga picking of of food particles from between teeth
kuko nail hinguko cutting of fingernauil or toenail
tukod support, prop hinukod stature, posture
sunod follow hinuhod assent, acquiescence
tuli earwax hinuli removal of earwax
kuto louse hinguto picking louse from the hair
hinuha inference, deduction,
hinyango chameleon
hingalo death agony, suffering of the dying
hinagpis sorrow, affliction,anguish
hinahon composure, serenity, prudence

10. TA- Affix

This restricted affix is used to describe a state or placement of things. Zorc’s example for Aklanon:

kurong crown takurong crown, put a crown on
kilid side takilid turen the side to
likod back talikod turn one back [to, on]
liwan outside taliwan pass by , go by
libag dissonant talibag be out of order
talibong a long knife, sword
talisayon breed of rooster

According to Zorc, these are derived from TA-:

taga….. hailing/coming from,
native of
tag….. season of, time of tagbueunga
tig….. season of, in a given order tiglima,

These words can be combined with Causative/Distributive:

Aklanon Madali eon nakataliwan rong binuean.
English The months have already passed by [so quickly].

Aklanon Ginpataliwan nana rto baboy ag ana nga bun-on.
English He let the boar pass, and then he speared it.

aklanon panga- examples

Adjectival Affixes

1. Shared Adjectival affixes include ma-, maki-, –in-,

2. Reduplication

Aklanon has reduplication of root which means diminishment of the quality, or a little bit of the quality. Tagalog prefixes the reduplication with ma-.

Bikol Tagalog
asul blue asul-asul slightly blue maasul-asul maasul-asul
lamig cold lamiglamig cool malipot-lipot malamig-lamig
init hot init-init warm ma-init-init ma-init-init

Bikol uses ma-as well for adjectives but has the same reduplication on other adjectives that are statives:

Bikol   Tagalog
bua crazy bua-bua slightly crazy   medyo baliw
hilaw unripe hilaw-hilaw slightly unripe   medyo hilaw
bilog round bilog-bilog round-ish   medyo bilog

3. -AN Suffix

Aklanon uses –an to mean the object has the quality of the root word. This seems to be affixed to parts of a thing, meaning, the object has lots of of, exaggerated or unusual part . This is also found in Bikol and Tagalog but restricted.

utak brain utakan intelligent, brainy Aklanon
dila tongue dilaan talkative Aklanon
buot buotan mature, having character Aklanon
panga jaw pangahan square jaw Tagalog
dugo blood duguan bloody Tagalog
palad palm paladan lucky Bikol

4. -ON Affix

This affix means frequently having the meaning of the root word. Bikol is different in that –Vr- is inserted to the root word, implying multiple occurrences of acquiring the meaning.

Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
having a cold sip-onon sipunin siripunon
having cough ubuhin arabuhon
having nerves kabahin harandalon


5. MA-IN-ON Affix

This is not found in Bikol or Tagalog. Tagalog equivalent is ma….in and in Bikol….. Seems like the Aklanon version is the combined Tagalog and Bikol affixes.

Bikol Tagalog
bulig help mabinuligon helpful matinabang matulungin
salig trust masinaligon trusting masinarig maaasahan
tahod respect matinahoron respectful maginalang magalangin
tanda remember matinandaon mindful, always remembers maginiromdom maalalahanin
higugma love mahinigugmaon loving mapinadangat maibigin

This form is related to the intensive form in Bikol, which literally means “able to be very“, e.g. mabinuligon “able to be very helpful” .

6. MA- -AN Affix

Tagalog and Bikol does not seem to have this.

salig trust masaligan trustworthy
tamad lazy matamaran perpetually lazy

7. MAKA- Affix

Aklanon here is different with the addition of -Vɣ-. Tagalog reduplicates the root word and changes ma- to na-, while Bikol prefixes with –kapa-, reduplicates –ka- and changes ma- to na-.

Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
soporific makaduyog nakatutulog nakakapaturog
poisonous makahilo nakahihilo nakakaparara
fearsome makakuɣba nakatatakot nakaka(pa)takot
intoxicating makahilong nakahihilo nakaka(pa)hilo
painful makasakit nakasasakit nakaka(pa)kulog
contagious makatapon nakahahawa nakaka(pa)ulakit
angersome, outrageous makaugot nakagagalit nakaka(pa)anggot
pitiful, saddening makaɣu-oy nakaaawa nakaka(pa)herak

8. PALA– Affix

Aklanon and Tagalog share this affix which means “fondness for or devotion to”, Bikol is slightly different for it means “always”, and it uses a different affix for the others: MA- + Reduplication + –IN- .

Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
fond of eating paɣakaon palakain parakakan
fond of laughing paɣahibayag palatawa *parangisi
fond of thinking paɣadumdum pala-isip *paraisip
fond of smiling palangiti *parahuyom
fond of joking palabiro parasuba
fond of fighting pala-away para-iwal

9. KA- Intensive Affix

In Aklanon, intensive adjectives is formed by ka-, in Tagalog napaka-, in Bikol  -on. Tagalog has an alternate form. The Aklanon form is homophonous with the ka- as a nominative prefix meaning “-ness/-th”.

Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
very nice kasadya napakasaya
very delicious kanamit napakasarap
extremely wide kaɣapad napakalapad

The Tagalog form can also be expressed as ka+reduplication of the root word.

10 KA.. ..AN Superlative and Absolute Affix

For absolute quality and superlative adjectives, affixes also differ. This ka….an circumfix is identical with the nominal affix discussed above in KA-. Bikol has alternate forms for superlative, where the suffix –i is related to the imperative mood form of the –an suffix.
Repetition means that its at the very center of the quality. This is related to the Tagalog pagka+reduplication in the Intensive affix.

Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
tallest kabahoɣan pinakamatangkad pinakamaogma (na)
ka-ogma-ogmahi (sa)
sweetest katam-isan pinakamatamis pinakamasiram (na)
kasiram-sirami (sa)
highest kamakaɣan pinakamataas pinakahalakbang (na)
kalakbang-lakbangi (sa)

Take note that the intensive and superlative in Tagalog and Bikol both have –pa- (“cause to have”) and the –n- (“realis”). Napaka- and pinaka- both means “has been caused to be extremely”, but napaka- is Actor focused, and pinaka- is NonActor focused.



Function Words

20 . Function Markers

As opposed to Zorc, I treated “it” not as a separate Object Marker but as an Associat

Common noun

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
nominative ro
ang an
genitive-definite ku
nang kan
genitive – indefinite it nang nin    
oblique sa sa sa  

Note that Tagalog can’t distinguish definite and indefinite genitive.

The definite vs. indefinite distinction can only happen if there is one :

English You will be sung for by the children.// You will be sung for by children.
Aklanon Kantahan ikaw ku manga unga. // Kantahan ikaw it  manga unga.
Tagalog Kakantahan ka nang manga bata. //Kakantahan ka nang manga bata.
Bikol Kakantahan ka kan manga aki. // Kakantahan ka nin manga aki.

But not possible here in Aklanon:


Definite Non-focused Actor and an indefinite object

English Mother was the one for whom the man bought fish.
Aklanon Si Nanny ro ginbakean it isda’ ku tawo.
Tagalog Si Nanay ang binilhan nang isda nang tao.
Bikol Si Nanay an binakalan nin sira kan taho.

Indefinite non-focused actor, but a definite object

English Mother was the one for whom a man bought the fish.
Aklanon *Si Nanny ro ginbakean it tawo ku isda’.
Tagalog Si Nanay ang binilhan nang tao nang isda.
Bikol Si Nanay an binakalan nin taho kan sira
Si Nanay an binakalan kan sira nin taho. (ambiguous).
”Mother was the one for whom the fish the bought a man.”
Mother was the one for whom a man bought the fish.

Is ungrammatical and ridiculous in Aklanon according to Zorc and not possible if the second sense. makes no difference in Tagalog since no distinction is being made. Its grammatical in Bikol ambiguous even if the object come ahead of the actor.

sometimes if two definite genitive markers are used, common sense will help disambiguate the roles of the substantives.

English The ring will be bought by the man with that money.
Aklanon Ro singsing pagabakeon  ku eaki kung kwarta ngaron.
Tagalog Ang singsing ay bibilhin nang lalaki nang perang iyon.
Bikol An singsing babakalon kan lalaki kan kwartang idto.

Care should be taken with Aklann “it’ as it can be “used in many idiomatic constructions, particularly with NEGATIVES, ADVERBS, PARENTHETICAL STATEMENTS as a linking particle or ligature. Since these are not nominal phrases, [… ] they cannot be emphasized or made the matter of a focus pattern in Aklanon.” Example:

English Maria is not at all choosy; she eats everything.
Aklanon Si Maria bukon gid it mapili; gakaon imaw it tanan.
Tagalog Si Maria hindi talaga na mapili; kumakain siya nang lahat.
Bikol Si Maria dai nanggad na mapili; nagkakakan siya nin gabos.

Referents (or Obliques)  cover indirect objects, locations, beneficiaries,and other Referents are marked by the referent markers




The plural is indicated by adding the plural word “manga””

Ro manga > rong

Do manga > dong

Proper noun

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
nominative-SG si si si    
genitive-SG ni
ni ni    
oblique-SG kay
sa ay
kay ki  
nominative-PL say
sina sa    
genitive-PL anday
nina na    
oblique-PL kanday
sa anday
kina ka  

As Zorc have noted, “Etymologically speaking, each plural marker for personal names is the abbreviation of the singular marker along with the forms anda (Associate pro-noun form) and ‘ay.”

si anda ay sanday
ni anda ay nanday
kay anda ay kanday


ties up orbinds together the word, phrase or clausethatfollows it.It makes what follows a single unit, servingwhatever partipuLir function the mar-ker itself serves. What is more, themarker makes the word, phrase or clausefollowing itand connected to it mto a substantive ornominal construction. Even if the formfollowing afunction marker would normally be a verb or anadjective if standing alone, that element istransformed into a nominal by the, functionmarker…The second thing to point out is that any part of speech can serve as a noun, nominal orsubstantive if preceded by a function marker:


18. Personal Pronouns

Enclitic forms obligatorily follow the word/phrase they are bound to.

Topic Pronouns – “the Topic or emphatic form of the clause of sentence; not only the actor but also any stressed role brought into focus. Could be actor, object, indirect object or beneficiary, depending on focus used”

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
speaker-SG ako ako ako    
speaker-listener SG **        
listener SG ikaw,
ka (enc)
ikaw ika  
other SG imaw siya siya    
speaker-PL kami kami kami  
speaker-listener PL kita,
ta (enc)
tayo kita  
listener PL kamo kayo kamo  
other PL sanda sila sinda  

Associative Forms = used in slots open to associates – unemphasied actors, companions, concomitants, etc. with 3 forms: prepositive, postpositive, and enclitic.

Prepositive form = comes before the word, phrase orclause its members complement,and must be linked to that following constructionwith the na ligature,

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
speaker-SG akon akin sako’    
speaker-listener SG ** ** **    
listener SG imo iyo saimo  
other SG ana   saiya    
speaker-PL amon amin samo’  
speaker-listener PL aton atin sato’  
listener PL inyo inyo saindo  
other PL anda   sainda  

Postpositive form = follows the word, phrase or clause its members complement, andIs not linked to that preceding construction in any way; the n- morpheme of this set isalready an automatic linker,, this particular sub-set is used after the negative, interrogativeand other pre-positive particles. No other pronoun form for the associate is possible

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
speaker-SG nakon ** **    
speaker-listener SG ** ** **    
listener SG nimo ** **  
other SG nana niya niya    
speaker-PL namon namin **  
speaker-listener PL naton natin **  
listener PL ninyo ninyo nindo  
other PL nanda nila ninda  

Enclitic form = must follow the forms they complement . Their position is obligatory. and they take precedence over any other enclitic forms (such as discourse (moth ats torediscourse particles):

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
speaker-SG ko ko ko    
speaker-listener SG ** ** **    
listener SG mo mo mo  
other SG na ** **    
speaker-PL ** ** mi  
speaker-listener PL ta ** ta  
listener PL ** ** **  
other PL ** ** **  

In Bikol and Tagalog, the Postpositive  and enclitic forms merged as Enclitic forms

REFERENT PRONOUNS = serve in the same slots as substantives marked by the sa or kay function markers.

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
speaker-SG kakon        
speaker-listener SG **        
listener SG kimo      
other SG kina kaniya      
speaker-PL kamon      
speaker-listener PL katon      
listener PL kinyo      
other PL kanda kanila    

19. Deictics = are motion pr location words

Topic Deictics 

standard form = stand in-tfie usual Topic slot, in any position of the clause

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
close to the speaker raya
dini digdi    
close to listener, not far from speaker ruyon
diyan diyan    
close to listener, far from speaker ran(ha)
close to the other, far deom speaker-listener rato
doon duman    


enclitic form =come second in the clause obligatorily,and that they car never occur in initial position: often linked with the ligature rip and used demonstively

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
close to the speaker ra to ni    
close to listener, not far from speaker ron yan yan    
close to listener, far from speaker na’      
close to the other, far deom speaker-listener to yon to    

Emphatic forms

Speaker oriented = If the speakerwishes to respondwith a “this”or “that” form emphasizing something at hand, hewill use one of the speaker-oriented forms. In other words, the speaker-oriented forms aredemonstrative; they showsomething from the speaker’s point of view:

the speaker is actually pointing tosomething and showing itto the hstener; pe..reaps, for example, (j) he wouldbe pointing to a picture in a photo albumAowing his entire family together. The use of the speaker-orientedforms implies twothings–that the speaker is demonstrating something, and that the listeneris aware (usuallyvisually) of what is being demonstrated.

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
close to the speaker hara
heto uni
close to listener, not far from speaker haron hayan uyan
close to listener, far from speaker hana’      
close to the other, far deom speaker-listener hato’
hayon uto

Listener oriented form = generally used in response.Theyimply that the listen is responding to something the speaker has said or is very,much awareof:

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
close to the speaker mawraya
close to listener, not far from speaker mawruyon        
close to listener, far from speaker mawrana’      
close to the other, far deom speaker-listener mawrato’

speaker-listener form = generally imply agreement or commonknowledge ofboth or all parties e.4ageel in the conversation. They can be used in response to or indemon-stration of a point universrdly known or understood:

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
close to the speaker rondaya        
close to listener, not far from speaker ronduyon        
close to listener, far from speaker rondana’      
close to the other, far deom speaker-listener rondato’        


Associative Diectics

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
close to the speaker kuraya nitong kaini(ng)    
close to listener, not far from speaker kuruyon niyang kaiyan (na)    
close to listener, far from speaker kuran(h)a      
close to the other, far deom speaker-listener kurato niyong

Refrent Diectics

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
close to the speaker karaya
close to listener, not far from speaker karuyon
close to listener, far from speaker karan(h)a
close to the other, far deom speaker-listener karato


1. To indicate the plural of nouns, Bisayan, Tagalog and Bikol uses the plural word marker ‘manga’

1.  Aklanon uses ’nga’  as ligature or linker between nominals and adjectives as well as a relativizer.  ‘nga’ may or may not be reduced to –ng if the preceeding word ends in vowel sounds or the consonants / h, ч, n /. This is similar to Tagalog but not Bikol. Bikol does not allow reduction if the preceding word ends in –n.

Aklanon maista(n)-ng unga small child
Tagalog ibo(n)-ng malaki big bird
Bikol bubon na hararom deep well.

2. Aklanon uses ‘ka’ as an enumerative marker after the numerals and ‘pila’ (how many). ‘nga’ may or may not be used together with  ‘ka’. However, if ‘ka’ is left out, there must be a ‘nga’.

  ten horses
Aklanon tatlo-ng ka kabayo
Tagalog tatlo-ng kabayo
Bikol tolo-ng kabayo


  How many kilometers?
Aklanon pila ka kilometros
Tagalog ila(n)-ng kilometro?
Bikol pira-ng kilometro?


3. Interrogatives. According to , In Aklanon it is more idiomatic to use “sin-o” (who) rather than “ano” (what) to ask for the name. This is

  What is your name? Who are you?
Aklanon sin-o imong ngaean?
Tagalog Anong pangalan mo? ; Sino ka?
Bikol Anong pangaran mo? ; Siisay ka?


4.  Aklanon has prepositive and postpositive forms for the interrogative genitive personal pronoun as well as referent personal interrogative.  Bikol and Tagalog combines the referent and the prepositive associate personal interrogative.

Genitive prepositive Whose wallet is that?
Aklanon Anyo nga kahita duyon?
Tagalog Kanino-ng pitaka iyan?
Bikol Kiisay na pitaka iyan?


Genitive postpositive By whom was this given?
Aklanon Ginta-o nanyo raya?
Tagalog Ibinigay ito nino?
Bikol Itinao ini niisay?


Referent To whom should I give the money?
Aklanon Kanyo nakon itao ro kwarta?
Tagalog Kanino ko ibibigay ang pera?
Bikol Kiisay ko itatao an kwarta?

In Aklanon anypo can combine with sin- and maging-.

  Who said?
Aklanon Sinanyo?
Tagalog Sinabi nino?
Bikol Sinabi niisay?


  Whose will this be if he should die?
Aklanon Maginganyo raya kon mamatay imaw?
Tagalog Magiging kanino ito kung mamamatay siya?
Bikol Magiging kiisay ini kun magagadan siya?

5. Aklanon has a genitive form for the common noun interrogative marker “nano“ distinct from the nominative form “ano”. This is absent in Bikol and Tagalog.

Genitive What are you reading?
Aklanon Nano ro imong ginabasa?
Tagalog Ano ang iyong binabasa?
Bikol Ano an saimong binabasa?

Aklanon quotative kun- merged with ano to form kuno. Tagalog and Bikol words in parenthesis are approximations.

  It is believed that he is a thief.
Aklanon Manakaw kuno imaw.
Tagalog Magnanakaw (anya) siya.
Bikol Parahabon (daa) siya.

6. Aklanon also uses “alin’ (which) instead of “ano” (what) in the following scenario:

  How (do you) carry (it)?
Aklanon Pa-alin ro pagdaea?
Tagalog Pa-ano ang pagdala?
Bikol Pa-no an pagdara?


  What did they do yesterday?
Aklanon Nag-alin sanda kahapon?    (*which)
Tagalog Nag-ano sila kahapon?        (what)
Bikol Nag-ano sinda kasu-hapon?  (what)

Notice here that the word for yesterday in Aklanon is not marked for past, unlike Bikol. (see below).

7. Aklanon has two time interrogatives, one for the past and one for the future, which is similar to Bikol. Tagalog has one form that covers both.

past When did he arrived?
Aklanon Kan-o imaw magabot?   (uno: what)
Tagalog Kailan siya dumating?    (ilan: how many)
Bikol Kasu-arin siya nagabot?  (arin: which)


future When will they go?
Aklanon Hin-uno sanda ma-adto?  (uno: what)
Tagalog Kailan sila paroroon?       (ilan: how many)
Bikol Nu-arin sinda maduman?  (arin: which)

Notice that the root words of these interrogatives are different.

8. Aklanon also uses “siin” (where) for comparison, apart from the usual place question.

  Which of the two of them is prettier?
Aklanon Siin kandang daywa ro gwapa?            (siin: where)
Tagalog Alin sa kanilang dalawa ang maganda? (alin: which)
Bikol Arin sa saindang duwa an magayon?   (arin: which)

Aklanon does not seem to differentiate the following like Bikol or Tagalog (nasaan > nasan > asan)

Tagalog Ngunit nasaan? Saan ako makakahanap noon?
Bikol Alagad haen? Saen ako makakahanap kaidto?

As far as I can tell, Bikol can use these words consecutively: “Haen saen” (where-at/in/on where?). Tagalog also has “asan saan”.

9. Aklanon manner interrogatives . Aklanon has 4 words for how?

  How do you say that in English?
Aklanon Pa-ano ro paghambae karon sa Ininglis? (ano: what)
Tagalog Pa-ano ang pagsabi niyan sa Inglish?
Bikol Pa-no an pagsabi kayan sa Ingles?


  How should I do that?
Aklanon Pa-alin nakon oeobrahon duyon?    (arin: which)
Tagalog Pa-ano ko gagawin iyan?
Bikol Pa-no ko gigibohon iyan?



  How much is this chicken?
Aklanon Man-o ro manok ngara?
Tagalog Magkano ang manok na ito?
Bikol Gura-no an manok na ini?


  How are you? (How do you feel)
Aklanon Mauno ro imong pamatyag?  (ano: what)
Tagalog Ano ang iyong pakiramdam? (ano: what)
Bikol Ano an saimong pagmati?    (ano: what)

Seems like the Aklanon has conjugated “ano” like a verb.Seems like the Aklanon has conjugated “ano” like a verb.

10. Aklanon has 2 words for “why”

  Why is that?
Aklanon Ham-a’ ta ron? [ham-an it ana ron]


But why not?
Aklanon Pam-at indi?  [Pam-an it > Pam-at ]

11. Aklanon also uses the numeral interrogatives pila (how many) and ikapila (what rank,  what number).

12. Aklanon has 4 negative particles: owa, dili, buko,

Has he come back? No, he has not come back.
Aklanon Nagbalik imaw? Owa, imaw magbalik
Tagalog Bumalik na siya? hindi pa siya bumabalik.
Bikol Nagbalik na siya? [Mayo pa/] Dai siya nagbalik.


We don’t have a dog.
Aklanon Owa kami it ayam.
Tagalog Wala kaming aso.  (-ng > nang
Bikol Mayo kaming ido. (-in > nin)

Owa is used to negate possession. is used to negate realis verbs ().  Owa is used as well to indicate lack of possession with “it”

I will not eat supper here. Don’t tell this [to anyone].
Aklanon Indi ako magihapon dikara. Indi nimo igsugid raya.
Tagalog Hindi ako   dito. Huwag mo itong sabihin [kaninoman].
Bikol Dai ako mapamanggi digdi. Dai mo iosip ini [kiisayman].

Indi is used to give commands, and in negating irrealis verbs.

In Aklanon, the future and past meanings are contrasted for indi and owa. Bikol and Tagalog does not, the distinction is made in the verb instead.

I did not go to Ibajay. I will not go to Ibajay.
Aklanon Owa tang magadto sa Ibajay. Indi tang magadto sa Ibajay.
Tagalog Hindi ako pumuta sa Ibajay. Hindi ako pupunta sa Ibajay.
Bikol Dai ako napaduman sa Ibajay. Dai ako mapaduman sa Ibajay.

Ayaw is used for negative commands and used with “it” + simple verb root in Aklanon.

Don’t stare at me. Don’t laugh.
Aklanon Ayaw pagtueoka ako. Ayaw it hibayag.
Tagalog Huwag mo akong titigan. Huwag kang tumawa.
Bikol Hare pagturuhuke ako. Hare ini ngisihi. (sounds archaic)
Dai mo ako pagturuhukan. Dai ka magngisi.

Bukon is used to negating (a) adjectives, (b) other descriptive statements or modifiers, and © substantives used as description (as topic) when possession is not implied.

He is not industrious.
Aklanon Bukon imaw it mahugod.
Tagalog Hindi siya ….
Bikol Bako siya-ng mahigos.


Even the rich are not necessarily generous.
Aklanon Maskin rong manggaranon hay bukon man dayon it mabuot
Tagalog Kahit ang mayayaman ay hindi man mabait.
Bikol Maski an mayayaman bako man mabubuot.

The chart of negative particles and expressions between Aklanon, Tagalog and Bikol.

  English Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
Negative of Possession, Location not owa wala mayo, wara
negative of verb (realis) not owa hindi dai, diri’    
Negative  of verb (irrealis) not indi hindi dai, diri’
Negative of command not ayaw huwag hare
Negative of substantive & adjective no bukon hindi bako’
Negative of want, like not ? ayaw habo’  




walang sinoman
wala ni isa
(dai nin / mayo nin)
daing taho
mayong taho
dai ni saro
mayo ni saro
daing bagay
mayong bagay
daing lugar
mayong lugar
  no longer dai na
  never dai nanggad


13.  Aklanon has ‘hay’ which is equivalent to Tagalog ‘ay’. Bikol does not have an equivalent.

which function to:

(a) reverses the normal sentence order Predicate-Topic into Topic-Predicate.

He sold the carabao.
Aklanon Ginbaligya nana ro anwang. >  Ro anwang hay ginbaligya nana.
Tagalog Binenta niya ang kalabaw. >  Ang kalabaw ay binenta niya.
Bikol Ipinabakal niya an damulag. > An damulag ipinabakal niya.

(b) emphasis derivation by putting any element in initial position of clause/sentence.

The buildings in Manila are high. > In Manila, well the buildings are high.
Aklanon Mataas ro mga baeay sa Manila. > Sa Manila hay mataas ro mga baeay.
Tagalog Mataas ang mga bahay sa Manila > Sa Manila ay mataas ang mga bahay.
Bikol Haralangkaw an manga harong sa Manila. > Sa Manila haralangkaw an manga harong.

14. Aklanon has two basic focus or emphasis types on possession statements, apart from the usual existential sentence.

(a) Focus on the Possessor – puts the “may” before the object possessed, and makes the possessor the Topic of the sentence. Tagalog and Bikol both have the first type.

What he said has worth.
Aklanon May kapuslanan ro anang ginhambal.
Tagalog May kabuluhan ang kanyang sinabi.
Bikol May kamanungdanan an saiyang sinabi.

(b) Focus on the relationship of Possession – puts the “may” before a prepositive associate (the possessor) , and linking the resulting phrase to the object of possession with the “nga” ligature.

The child has a top.
Aklanon May ana ku unga nga torumpo.
Tagalog May torompo ang bata.
Bikol May trompo an aki.

This type seems to be that the “may” modifies the entire phrase after it, with “nga” ??

15. Discourse Particles.

Chart for discourse particles, mostly taken from David Zorc’s work.

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
rhetorical, emphasizing the desired response by cueing the listener to it. baea ba
Too/also, as well. man man/naman
excuse? abi’ kasi
Unfortunately ugaling > ugang > gang subalit, ngunit
ugaring (but, however)
“that”, “to that” ruyon > ron iyan > yan iyan > yan?
now, just, already (action not yet started) karon >
na na
still, yet (action not yet terminated) pa pa pa
consequently, subsequently, thereupon, therefore dayon/rayon
?? lugod?
first, please, for a second, just a minute (time of action should precede another time of action) anay muna ngu’na
right away, quickly (action to occur immediately) eagi agad
“it is believed, it is said” quotative kun + ano
daw/raw daa    
used to quote one’s own words or thoughts makon ?? nyako’    
used to make polite corrections; “we should say” maton ?? ngantig ??    
used to quote another person “he/she said” mana aniya
just, only eamang > eang lamang
makes the nominal reflexive mismo mismo mismo    
almost, just about, barely haeos halos haros    
likely, almost, closely hingan ?? ??    
definitely, really, truly, very (deliberate / intensive action) gid talaga nanggad,
call attention to a point, assert something with some degree of emphasis. ki kasi kaya?    
express surprise, speaker has just been reminded of something. gali pala palan,
express certainty or truthfulness; also express irritation when reminded of something which is already obvious or known. ngani nga ngani’    
express strong doubt or warning, indicates the statement is most probably untrue. basi baka baka’,
express that an action will most probably come true siguro,
express wish or hope that something might come to pass kunta’ sana kuta’
express that the statement is most probably be untrue. giato yata gayod    
express mild uncertainty sabon yata?? daw    
“”of course, naturally” syempre syempre syempre    
expresses doubt about the statement is precedes, but at the same time expressing strong sentiment that the statement is or will prove true. matsa
tila garo    
even, no matter what maskin kahit (na) maski (na)    
about, approximately (counting or telling time) manga manga manga    
somewhat, close to, might medyo medyo medyo    
“go on, go ahead, do it” sige sige sige    
“I dont know” ta-o aywan inda    
“can do, may be permitted, is possible” puwede,
give [me] abi,
?? ??  
again     giraray


Mismo, medyo, pwede, syempre, siguro/sigurado, and maskin… are borrowings from Spanish and have identical usage.

16. Coordingating Conjuctions that stand between the elements (of same grammatical class ) they join.

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
and ag at asin    
or o, ukon o o, okun    
nor, if not kundi’ kung hindi’ kundi’
kun dai
but apang,
but, on the other hand ugaling [?] alagad  
since, for, becuase ay [?] ta  


17. Subordinating Conjuctions occurs at the beginning of the dependent clause.

Meaning Aklanon Tagalog Bikol
even though aber kahit na maski na    
even bisan kahit maski    
even if maskin kahit na maski na  
so that agod upang nganing
ta nganing
if, when kon kung kung  
including pati’ pati pati
while samtang habang
so long as, provided that basta basta basta  
kaya kaya’  
excluding pwera pwera (a)pwera  

aber, basta, intonsis, maski and (q)pwera are from spanish.

continue from

adverbs 198(180)- 204 (187)

adjectives 186(169) – 197 (179)

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: