I’ve come across “Dupaningan Agta: Grammar, Vocabulary, and Texts” (2008) by Laura Robinson and I’m happy to read about one of the affixes she found in Dupaningan Agta, a habitual affix with the forms marag- and parag- but no completive aspect form (narag-). I suppose this affix is a combination of pag- and –Vr- infix : p<ar>ag-.
This affix is an Actor Focus Affix, just like mag-, mangag-, mang- in that the “semantic actors of the verb are in the nominative case”. When used with a negative, it has the meaning of never having done the action specified by the verb.
Furthermore she said
“it does not take any other voice affixes, and it is likely that the m- derives historically, or at least by analogy, from the actor voice infix <um>…The prefix marag- optionally co-occurs with CVC- reduplication, probably under the influence of Ilokano, which uses CVC- reduplication with the comparable prefix manag- “.
Some uses of the affix are illustrated:
|Dupaningan Agta||marag-esbu i wadi =mi =aye
HBT -urinate DEF younger.sibling=1PL.EXC.GEN= PROX.SPC
|English||This younger sibling of ours urinates frequently.|
|Dupaningan Agta||maraghen=kami =bi =la a he a talon
HBT-stay =1PL.EXC.NOM=also=just LK here LK place
|English||We live here in this place.|
|Dupaningan Agta||awan =bi a maragdegus ha baybay
NEG =also LK HBT-bathe OBL ocean
|English||He has never bathed in the ocean.’|
|Dupaningan Agta||ma-nakam =ak =noman kona i maragtakaw =a
ADJ-thought=1SG.NOM =ASRT say DEF HBT-steal =SPC
|English||“I am thoughtful,” said the thief.’|
|Dupaningan Agta||marag-an -anteng ha dilan =aya
HBT -REDUP-fear OBL path = MED.SPC
|English||‘He is afraid of walking on that path.’|
|Dupaningan Agta||p<in>utad -ø =[na] i pusad na anak=a [i bakas =aya a marag-aplos]
<CMPL>cut-PV =3.SG.GEN DEF navel GEN child =SPC DEF old.woman= MED.SPC LK HBT-massage
|English||That midwife cut the child’s umbilical cord.|
|Dupaningan Agta||ito i-sulet =na i kurinnat hidi ha urah maraggatang hidi a rabon
it TV-trade=3SG.GEN DEF money PL OBL rice HBT-buy PL LK bird.nest
|English||These he will trade for money and rice to the bird nest buyers.|
|Dupaningan Agta||i ibay =di =heya a maragnagen ha Cherles
DEF Ilokano.friend=3PL.GEN=SPC LK HBT-name OBL Charles
|English||Their Ilokano friend named Charles.|
When used as a nominal prefix, it has a meaning of occupation, which reminds me of the Tagalog way of forming occupation nouns, by prefixing mag- to the reduplicated verb. It is not mentioned in her work if Dupaningan Agta distinguishes progressive aspect but it seems it does not, as in the Aspect section, she has a sample of sentence that has ongoing action but has no morphological mark for Progressive Aspect, just the Incompletive Aspect. She further states that “The difference between future, present, and past progressive must be made either with adverbs or be recoverable from the context.”. Although she mentions options to mark ongoing actions, those involve different verb affixes altogether with their own incompletive vs completive aspect distinctions (a) CVC reduplication on maka-/naka- assumed to be borrowed from Ilokano, and (b) (C)V(C)CV- reduplication (Reduplication of the first two syllables minus the coda of the second syllable) native to the language on mag-/nag- and ma-/na- affixes. She has found no data for either marag-+CVC reduplication or marag-+(C)V(C)CV- reduplication of the forms below:
|Encountered Incompletive forms||Hypothetical Progressive Aspect forms|
|marag-esbu||*marag–es-esbu OR *marag–esbu-esbu|
|maraghen||*maraghenhen OR *maraghenhen|
|maragdegus||*maragdegdegus OR *maragdegudegus|
|maraggatang||*maraggatgatang OR *maraggatagatang|
|maragnagen||*maragnagnagen OR *maragnagenagen|
So the Dupaningan Agta equivalent involves no reduplication.
|maragaplos||manghahaplos||masseuse, one how massages|
|maragtakaw||magnanakaw||thief, one who steals|
|maraggatang||mamimili||buyer, one who buys|
Marag- has a subjunctive or participle form, parag-:
hadia i parag-hen-an di manay=mo
|English||Where do your aunt and her companions live?|
<in><um>etnod =kam ha parag-kan-an
‘You all sat on the table.’
b<um>ikan i [[manok hidi=a] hidi a pato] ha parag-dukut-an =a
<AV>near DEF chicken PL =SPC PL OBL duck OBL HBT-cook -LV =SPC
|English||The chickens and ducks come near the hearth.’|
The parag-…an denote a place for doing the habitual action due to the –an suffix. Comparison with Tagalog again reveal reduplication in Tagalog of the verb root before the prefix is applied.
|pagkakain<an||table (for eating)|
|pagtutulog<an||‘usual sleeping place’ (cf. k<um>ilap ‘sleep’)|
‘usual camp in the forest’ (cf. pag-isan-an ‘temporary hut in the
|pagluluto<an||hearth, place for cooking.|
|pagtitirh<an||residence, place to live|
Other interesting Dupaningan Agta Grammar
- Use of ta- affix to denote smallness.
- Use of pat- affix for familial relationships.
- Use of makin- affix to highlight ownership of the root.
- About Personal pronouns:
- long form nominative personal pronouns start with hi- and are not clitics,
- short form nomonatives are enclitics.
- oblique starts with ni- and not clitics,
- genitive are 1 syllable enclitics.