Old Bikol Case Markers

I was reading Malcolm Mintz “Terms of Religious Adaptation: The Introduction of Christianity to the Bikol Region of the Philippines” and I noticed a few sentences with a case marker that I’ve seen in Samarnon, the “ing” marker. The following are the sentences he took from  Marcos de Lisboa’s dictionary of Old Bikol. These sentences were written in Old Bikol, the language spoken in Naga at the time he was serving before 1618.

Old Bikol Garó na ing dagá’ iníng uuránon.
English This cloud is like the earth’


Old Bikol Garó na ing dápit.
English (She’s decked out) like an invited guest.


Old Bikol Garo na ing dai kinaptan.
English (It) looks as if this is untouched.


Old Bikol Kiisay daw na agi ini garo na ing aging bikas.
English Whose tracks are these, they look like hunting tracks.


And its not just used in the sample sentences, there’s also a dictionary’s entry for the case markers as below:

ing – article, for nominative common nouns, the same as ‘an’. Genitive ‘nin’. image
nin- genitive of the article ‘an’ of common nouns; but when it is followed by a vowel, its replaced with n. When nin is followed soon after with P,O, B  its returned to that ’n’, and when its followed by C, G, O, it becomes ‘ng’, and the same when it serves as accusative of this nin. image
an – article for common nouns, and in principle, seems what in Spanish is “el, la , lo”, in singular and “les, las, los” in plural. It’s replaced with the letter n when followed by any pronoun or noun that ends in a vowel. And if the letter m,p,b, n, it becomes “m”, and if the letter g,o,c,q, it becomes  ‘ng’. image
sa- second genitive of this clause, or article which is used for the common noun. The said article is also dative, accusative and ablative. image

Old Bikol would thus have the following common noun case markers (makes a distinction between definite and indefinite):

  Nominative Genitive Oblique
Definite an kan sa
Indefinite ing nin sa

Although I was not able to locate the main entry for “kan” I assumed it exists even then since it is used in the sample sentences plus I have not seen the entry for  “nang”.

2 Responses to “Old Bikol Case Markers”

  1. Bikol Phrase Markers, Part 3 | Xiller Yañez's Weblog Says:

    […] common noun indefinite phrase marker exists only in Old Bikol. As I have shown in an older post, there were four example sentences provided by Marco de Lisboa in his dictionary for this phrase […]

  2. Bicolano Says:

    Manoy, niata’ daw nawara’ su “ing” kan Bikol? Manungod sa “nin” o “ning”, siring man palan kaan sa Pampanggo adi? Mantang “ng” sa Tagalog. Niata’ daw nagkapareho ang Bikol pati Pampanggo sa “ning” mientras an Tagalog sa tahaw kan duwa, “ng/nang” ang gamit..?

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