I was reading Malcolm Mintz “Terms of Religious Adaptation: The Introduction of Christianity to the Bikol Region of the Philippines” and I noticed a few sentences with a case marker that I’ve seen in Samarnon, the “ing” marker. The following are the sentences he took from Marcos de Lisboa’s dictionary of Old Bikol. These sentences were written in Old Bikol, the language spoken in Naga at the time he was serving before 1618.
|Old Bikol||Garó na ing dagá’ iníng uuránon.|
|English||This cloud is like the earth’|
|Old Bikol||Garó na ing dápit.|
|English||(She’s decked out) like an invited guest.|
|Old Bikol||Garo na ing dai kinaptan.|
|English||(It) looks as if this is untouched.|
|Old Bikol||Kiisay daw na agi ini garo na ing aging bikas.|
|English||Whose tracks are these, they look like hunting tracks.|
And its not just used in the sample sentences, there’s also a dictionary’s entry for the case markers as below:
Old Bikol would thus have the following common noun case markers (makes a distinction between definite and indefinite):
Although I was not able to locate the main entry for “kan” I assumed it exists even then since it is used in the sample sentences plus I have not seen the entry for “nang”.