Filipino Personal Pronouns

Nominative Series

I accidentally come accross this Botolan Sambal personal pronoun series and I was quite struck with the regularity of the nominative series:

Number Person Nominative
Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) hiko -ako/-ko ko kongko
  1+2 (dual) hita -ta ta konta
2(singular) hika -ka mo komo
3 (singular) hiya -ya na kona
Augmented 1 (plural) hikayi -kayi nawen konnawen
1+2 (plural) hitamo -tamo tamo kontamo
2 (plural) hikawo -kawo moyo, yo komoyo
3 (plural) hila -hila la konla

Notice that all the Full Nominative personal pronouns starts with hi-, which was originally si-. Also the Oblique series all starts with k-.

Genitive Series

This reminds me as well of the Hanunoo Mangyan personal pronoun series where the Genitive all starts with ni-, as well as the Bisayan languages:

Number Person Nominative
Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako niko kangko
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) kawo nimo kanmo
3 (singular) siya niya kanya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita, ta nita kanta
1+2 (plural) kami nimi kanmi
2 (plural) siyu niyu kanyu
3 (plural) sida nida kanda

Samarnon has the following pronoun series:

Number Person Nominative
Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako/ak nakon/nak/ko akon/ak
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) ikaw/ka nimo/nin/mo imo/im
3 (singular) siya,hiya niya iya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita/ta
naton aton/at
1+2 (plural) kami
namon amon
2 (plural) kamo/kam niyu iyo
3 (plural) sila/hira nira ira

The na> of Samarnon in the Genitive for 1 singular and  plural and 1+2 plural developed from the sequence ni+akon, ni+aton, and ni+amon with accompanying vowel loss, and happened in Tagalog (namin, natin), Amis (nako, namo) and Sugbuhanon as well but not in Bikol (niako, niamo, niato), described by Reid on page 245.

Sugbuhanon has this pronoun series.

Number Person Nominative
Minimal 1 (singular) ako/ko ako/akoha nako/ko nako/kanako
1+2 (dual) * * * *
2 (singular) ikaw/ka imo/imoa nimo/mo nimo/kanimo
3 (singular) siya, sya iya/iyaha niya niya/kaniya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita/ta ato/atoa nato nato/kanato
1+2 (plural) kami/mi amo/amoa namo namo/kanamo
2 (plural) kamo inyo/inyoha ninyu ninyo/kaninyo
3 (plural) sila ila/ilaha nila nila/kanila

Topic Series

Kapampangan , on the other hand, has nominative series that starts with i-, which would be the equivalent Topic series in Amis below:

Number Person Nominative
Nominative(enclitic) Genitive
Minimal 1 (singular) iaku/aku ku ku kanako, kaku
1+2 (dual) ikata kata, ta ta kekata
2 (singular) ika ka mu keka
3 (singular) iya, ya ya na kaya/keya
Plural 1 (plural) ikatamo, itamo katamu, tamu tamu, ta kekatamu, kekata
1+2 (plural) ikami, ike kami, ke mi kekami, keke
2 (plural) ikayu, iko kayu, ko yu kekayu, keko
3 (plural) ila la da, ra karela

Amis personal pronoun series is like this:

Number Person Nominative
Minimal 1 (singular) kako nako
itakoan ako
1+2 (dual)
2 (singular) kiso niso
itisoan iso
3 (singular) cira nira iciraan cira
Augmented 1 plural) kita mita
itamian ita
1+2 (plural) kami niam
ititaan ami
2  (plural) kamo namo
itamoan amo
3 (plural) kohni nohni
itohnian ohni

Oblique Series

Northern Catanduanes, one of Bikol varieties, uses ki– in a few Oblique pronouns:

Number Person Nominative Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako ko ako
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) ka mo imo
3 (singular) siya niya kiya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita nato ato
1+2 (plural) kami namo amo
2 (plural) kamo ninyo inyo
3 (plural) sila nila kila

And Agta Partido has ki– in these series as well:

Number Person Nominative Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako ko kiyako
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) ka, ika mo kimo
3 (singular) iya niya, ya kunya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita ta kiyato
1+2 (plural) kami mi kiyamo
2 (plural) kamo yu kinyo
3 (plural) ida ninda kunda

Filipino Auxlang

With this info, we can now construct a Filipino auxlang with a regular pronoun series such as: (* found in a natural language, same case, # found in a natural language, different case)

Number Person Nominative
(enclitic) Genitive
Objective [ki]
(Dative /
Minimal 1 (singular) siko* -ko niko* kiko diko iko
1+2 (dual) sita* -ta nita* kita# dita ita*
2 (singular) simo# -mo nimo* kimo* dimo imo#
3 (singular) siya* -ya niya* kiya* diya iya#
Augmented 1 (plural) sito to nito kito dito ito
1+2 (plural) simi -mi nimi* kimi dimi imi
2 (plural) siyo* -yo niyo* kiyo diyo iyo
3 (plural) sira* -ra nira* kira* dira ira#

The Genitive prefix was assigned to ni– since its the most commonly used prefix for this case, same for si– .

The enclitic form’s case is dependent on the focus of the verb. If actor focus (AF), its Nominative, if it’s Non-actor Focus (NAF), its Genitive.

[di-] was chosen for Locative case since it patterns after demonstratives and locative case marker di. From Reid’s:


The Oblique starts with [ki-] since Kapampangan oblique case marker common singular is “king”, Bikol singular proper noun marker is “ki”; the ka- prefixed is from “kay”. 




Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: