Truncation Involving P› Affixes


In a previous post, I looked at works that discussed or mentioned in passing  Truncation as a process in some Philippine languages. I also said that this process is actually still productive in the said languages (my examples are mainly Tagalog and Bikol), and possibly operates as an extension of Blust’s CV-Truncation, since in this case, consonants other than labials are being deleted in several languages as well.

I have had no chance to see John Wolff’s 1973 work yet, but I agree that mag› and maŋ› are derived from  pag› and paŋ› affixes and infixed with ‹um›. So here I will try to show the detailed working of this deletion process as it applies to the verbs with mag›, ma› and maŋ› affixes. I will include ka› prefix in my future post about adjectives.

FULL CONJUGATION IN TAGALOG

Below we have the full conjugation table of the verb ikot. The table below is color coded: mood affix – blue, aspect – red, orientation affix – green.

PAG

Aspect Orientation Affix Irrealis Mood Realis Mood
Non-Progressive Ø pag-ikot
Progressive pagiikot
Non-Progressive i ipag-ikot ipinag-ikot
Progressive ipagiikot ipinagiikot
Non-Progressive an pag-ikotan pinag-ikotan
Progressive pag-iikotan pinag-iikotan
Non-Progressive in pag-ikotin pinag-ikot(in)
Progressive pag-iikotin pinag-iikot(in)
Non-Progressive um (pu)mag-ikot (pumi)nag-ikot
Progressive (pu)mag-iikot (pumi)nag-iikot

PA›

Aspect Orientation Affix Irrealis Mood Realis Mood
Non-Progressive Ø pa-ikot
Progressive paiikot
Non-Progressive i ipa-ikot ipina-ikot
Progressive ipaiikot ipinaiikot
Non-Progressive an pa-ikotan pina-ikotan
Progressive pa-iikotan pina-iikotan
Non-Progressive in pa-ikotin pina-ikot(in)
Progressive pa-iikotin pina-iikot(in)
Non-Progressive um (pu)ma-ikot (pumi)na-ikot
Progressive (pu)ma-iikot (pumi)na-iikot

 PAŊ

Aspect Orientation Affix Irrealis Mood Realis Mood
Non-Progressive Ø paŋ-ikot
Progressive paŋiikot
Non-Progressive i ipaŋ-ikot ipin-ikot
Progressive ipaŋiikot ipiniikot
Non-Progressive an paŋ-ikotan pinaŋ-ikotan
Progressive paŋ-iikotan pinaŋ-iikotan
Non-Progressive in paŋ-ikotin pinaŋ-ikot(in)
Progressive paŋ-iikotin pinaŋ-iikot(in)
Non-Progressive um (pu)maŋ-ikot (pumi)naŋ-ikot
Progressive (pu)maŋ-iikot (pumi)naŋ-iikot

 The sentences below give sample usage of these forms.

  1. Ang isang tao na hinatulan ng kamatayan sa pamamagitan ng garrote ay pa-uupuin, tatakluban ng isang tela ang ulo at sasakalin sa pamamagitan ng pag-ikot ng lubid.
  2. Masigasig din ang ginagawa niyang pag-iikot sa mga paaralan at barangay upang ipaliwanag ang mga pamamaraan para mabawasan ang krimen.
  3. Sa ngayon, tanging ang mga kandidato sa pagkapangulo, bise presidente at senador lang ang dama natin na nag-iikot at nanliligaw sa mga botante.
  4. Nag-iikot ngayon sa mga barangay ang mga eksperto ng Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) Romblon para palaganapin ang pagsasaka ng seaweeds.
  5. Ibinalik niya ang aparato sa loob ng bulsa at ipinag-ikot ang mga braso.
  6. Pati ba naman yun ipinag-iikot na rin ng hingi sa mga malls???
  7. Bilang parusa, pinag-ikot kami sa buong corridor ng high school ng nakapaa.
  8. Babaeng nagkakalat daw ng tsismis, pinag-iikot sa barangay at pinag-so-sorry gamit ang megaphone.
  9. “Talk about what?” kunot noong sabi ko, at aba’y ito siya pinag-ikotan lang ako ng mata.
  10. Ang “krung-krung” ay tunog ba ng “ring” ng lumang telepono na pa-ikot pa noon ang dial?
  11. Bago pa magdikit ang mga labi namin ay mabilis siyang nakaiwas at naikot ako bigla pahiga sa buhangin. Siya na ngayon ang nasa ibabaw ko. Nagulat ako sa ginawa niya.
  12. Naikot na niya ang lahat ng kulungan, dumulog na siya sa lahat ng korte, kinausap na niya ang lahat ng heneral, politiko, opisyal, kahit na sinong puwedeng kausapin. naikot nila ang buong daigdig
  13. Pina-ikot ni trigger ang bote….pag minamalas nga naman…sa kanya na naman natutuk ang bote.
  14. Ipinaikot ang kanyang mga braso sa poste bago kinabitan ng posas ang kanyang mga kamay.   
  15. Habang nasa loob ng bibig nya ay pina-ikotan ng dila at linaro din nito ang butas.     
  16. Ang Livestrong wristband ay isang dilaw na wristband o pantali o taling pang-ikot sa galang-galangan na binuo ng isang siklista at isang biktima ng kanser na si Lance Armstrong.
  17. Ballpen na pang-ikot ng cassette bihasa ako don.
  18. Ang espatula ay isa ring pang-ikot ginagamit pang baliktad ng mga pancake o karne.
  19. Wala kaming pang-ikot ng bolt sa paa nya kasi in-adjust namin yung height dahil out of the box ay mas mababa yung likuran.
  20. Alin ang ginagamit na pang-ikot o panghigpit ng turnilyo?
  21. Hahay, kung ano ang pinang-ikot ng agency sa inyo noon, ay yon naman ang ginamit para pa-ikotin kayo ulit ngayon.. At umikot naman kayo ulit.  
  22. ?Sayang din yung oras na pinang-ikot ko sa Megamall at yung pumunta …
  23. ?ano pinang ikot mo sa screw sa likod?     
  24. Nagsulat si Brylle sa libro gamit ang lapis na ipinang-ikot sa bookmark.
  25. Alama mo ba Kernel Opriasa na ipinang-iikot na ng ilang kamoteng lespu mo ang estasyon mo?
  26. Ipinang-iikot ngayon nina alyas VICTOR at JON2X ang TFOV sa utos daw ng isang alias DENNIS LAGBU.    
  27. “Baliw, bakit nga?” Pinang-ikotan niya lang ako ng mata at mabilis na hinila paalis ng kwarto.
  28. Pinang-ikotan ko naman siya ng mata at pumasok na sa kotse.
  29. Iiniikot ni Juan sa kamay ni Maria ang trompo.
  30. Iniikotan ni Juan ang kamay ni Maria ng trompo. 
  31. Umiikot si Juan sa kamay ni Maria ng trompo.

MORPHOLOGICAL ORDER IN TAGALOG
There are two proofs that  mag›, ma›, maŋ›, nag›, na› and naŋ› are derived from um› and involved deletion:

  • The presence of forms (minag›, mina›, minaŋ›) such as that found in Casiguran Dumagat together with Northern and Southern Alta and Arta languages (described here), and interpreted together with Blust’s Pseudo-Nasal Substitution.
  • The regularity of the affixation order. This one needs a little more unpacking since deletion obscures the regularity of the affixation order. Consider how the derived words with the pag›, pa›, and paŋ› affixes loaded with Aspect, Mood and Orientation features are formed. I list down the steps below and apply each step on each sample word, illustrated in the subsequent tables:

Steps:

  1. Initial word base, starting point.
  2. Apply ASPECT marker on the word base to get the Progressive Aspect, using CV-Reduplication in Tagalog. By default those without the marker is Non-Progressive.
  3. Apply the prefix pa›/pag›/paŋ›.
  4. Apply the MOOD marker on the base word, the infix in›, to get Realis mood. Without it, it’s in the Irrealis Mood.
  5. With ORIENTATION markers:
    1. Apply the ORIENTATION markers.
    2. If in and in the Realis mood, delete the last syllable of forms (described here.).  If um›, apply Blust’s PNS by deleting the first syllable pu›.
    3. If um› and in the Realis mood, delete the second syllable.

Again, the table below is color  coded, where blue means a segment is added (affixation, reduplication, etc.) and red means a segment is removed.

pag

Steps→

5c

5b

5a ←

4 ←

3 ←

2 ←

1

i ipinaglalaba pinaglalaba paglalaba lalaba laba
‹an pinaglalabahan pinaglalaba paglalaba lalaba laba
‹in pinaglalabain pinaglalabain pinaglalaba paglalaba lalaba laba
‹um minaglalaba puminaglalaba puminaglalaba pinaglalaba paglalaba lalaba laba

pa

Steps→

5c

5b

5a ←

4 ←

3 ←

2 ←

1

i ipinahuhulog pinahuhulog pahuhulog huhulog hulog
‹an pinahuhulogan pinahuhulog pahuhulog huhulog hulog
‹in pinahuhulogin pinahuhulogin pinahuhulog pahuhulog huhulog hulog
‹um minahuhulog puminahuhulog puminahuhulog pinahuhulog pahuhulog huhulog hulog

paŋ

Steps→

5c

5b

5a ←

4 ←

3 ←

2 ←

1

i ipinaŋgagamit pinaŋgagamit paŋgagamit gagamit gamit
‹an pinaŋgagamitan pinaŋgagamit paŋgagamit gagamit gamit
‹in pinaŋgagamitin pinaŋgagamitin pinaŋgagamit paŋgagamit gagamit gamit
‹um minaŋgagamit puminaŋgagamit puminaŋgagamit pinaŋgagamit paŋgagamit gagamit gamit

From the above table, it is easy to see the regularity in the order of application of the features Aspect, Mood, and Orientation. Its very transparent for in, an and i› affixes, but not to um›, as the order is obscured by truncation. um› forms have to undergone CV-Truncation plus deletion of the second syllable in the Realis Mood before reaching their final forms. In the in suffix the last syllable was also deleted in the Realis Mood. Nevertheless, Tagalog displays uniform order in morphological process across all Orientation affixes um›, in, an and i›. It is only after the orientation affix is added that some deletions happened.

This confirms Reid’s reconstructed um› forms as correct: *minag›, *minaŋ› and *mina› apart from independent support with data from Sinauna (Infanta Dumagat), Casiguran Dumagat, Northern Alta, Southern Alta and Arta. Casiguran Dumagat Agta forms resemble Step 5b um› forms that have undergone only the deletion of first syllable. The steps that I have outlined above also indicates that there were possibly two stages in the deletion process, again with support from Casiguran Dumagat and Blust’s NPS. Likewise, the presence of in forms in Saisiyat, Pazeh, Thao and Siraya indicates an active deletion process for this affix in the Realis Mood only.

IMPLICATIONS

What are the implications of the above analysis:

  1. It support the links between mag›, ma› and maŋ› affixes with um›, when there are mainstream analyses still treating them as separate, unconnected affixes. It is now clear that um› is a hidden component of the forms mag›, ma› and maŋ› and so we should not contrast them as if they are atomic affixes. Instead, the contrast should be between um› with and without the affixes pag›, pa› and paŋ›. The difference between um› and mag› is the presence of pag› in mag› and that both have um› in them. The same applies to pa›, paŋ›, pagiŋ›, and probably other p› initial affixes that have an alternant m› initial affix.
  2. It reduces the number of Action Orientation affix to just one: ‹um›. mag›, ma›, maŋ›, magiŋ›, etc. are not basic Action Orientation affixes; only ‹um› is the single Actor orientation affix.
  3. It possibly give insight as well on the issue whether the orientation (“focus”) affixes are derivational or inflectional, now that mag›, ma› and maŋ› can be split into ‹um› on one hand and pag›, pa› and paŋ› on the other hand.

Since we postulated that the difference between um› and mag› in Actor orientation verbs in Tagalog and other Philippine languages boils down to the presence or absence of pag› prefix in the Actor Orientation forms, teasing the difference between um› and mag› needs the identification of the meaning of pag›. This needs a different post altogether so I will not elaborate on this further. (We will look at Tagalog, Cebuano, Samarnon, Old Bikol and Old Hiligaynon on this in the future.)

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