Bikol Phrase Markers, Part 3

Nominative Forms

Apart from the Genitive forms previously discussed, Bikol has nominative forms for phrase markers.

Common Noun, Definite, Non-Anaphoric an
Common Noun, Definite, Anaphoric si  (Naga Dialect)
su (Legazpi Dialect)
Common Noun, Indefinite *in

The common noun indefinite phrase marker exists only in Old Bikol. As I have shown in an older post, there were four example sentences provided by Marco de Lisboa in his dictionary for this phrase marker. What’s noticeable is that all the examples he used were with the phrase “garo na” + ing. I will reproduce one here:

Old Bikol
Kiisay daw na agi ini, garo na ing aging bikas.
Who QUOT REL tracks this, like REL PM-Indef. tracks-REL hunt
English Whose tracks are these, they look like hunting tracks.

Ini is the subject complement in the sentence, with “ing aging bikas” the subject. With “aging bikas” having a generic referent, the indefinite ing is used. As a matter of fact, ing can be replaced with sarong (a in English) and the whole sentence makes grammatical sense (Kiisay daw na agi ini, garo na sarong aging bikas).

Samarnon Usage

Interestingly, another language south of Bikol still has this marker but is also slowly losing it, Samarnon. We will just summarize Samarnon’s use of in vs. an which I explored here.  I pointed out that definiteness can’t be differentiated from indefiniteness just by the presence of particular words or arrangement of such words; it depends on the intent of the speaker. Check the summary of my search about definiteness as explained by linguists.

In is the default marker if the referent is generic or has not been focused on distinct from the rest of other similar referents. When I say generic, what I meant is that the nominal or NP is interchangeable from similar referents. The expression does not refer to a particular instance, but to any one of possible instances. On the other hand, an is used when the noun referent is restricted to a subset of referents that the discourse participants can identify using context, prior discourse content or words that singles out the referent and limits its application


I’d like my conlang Filipino language to have definite vs. indefinite distinction in the nominative, that’s why I am exploring its usage in Old Bikol and Samarnon in the nominative and possibly other languages adjacent to them.

In the genitive case, Romblomanon, Hiligaynon, Bikol and Bisakol (Masbatenyo, etc.) have this distinction as well. For the anaphoric vs non-anaphoric distinction, it seems Samarnon, Bikol, Casiguran Dumagat, Paranan and Isnag have these. So its noteworthy that most of these distinctions can be found in either Bikol or Samarnon.


Tausug Prefix Hi>

While looking at the forms of the various Philippine languages for PMP *ika-pitu (seventh), I noticed that Tausug uses a verb prefix hi> while others mostly uses i>.

This page shows 3 of such prefixes using hi>.

(1) Theme focus hi>

  Tausug Tagalog Sugbuhanon
Infinitive (h)i>… i>…  
Future (h)i>… i><CV>…  
Initiated …<iy>… i>…<in>…  
Progressive C><iy>V>… i><C<in>V>…  

(2)  Instrument focus hipang>

  Tausug Tagalog Sugbuhanon
Infinitive hipang>… ipang>…  
Future hipang>… ipang><CV>…  
Initiated p<iy>ang>… ip<in>ang>…  
Progressive p<iy>ang><CV>… ip<in>ang><CV>…  

(3) Reason focus hika>

  Tausug Tagalog Sugbuhanon
Infinitive hika>… ika>…  
Future hika>… ika><CV>…  
Initiated k<iy>a>… ik<in>a>…  



Example of use of hika> in Tausug is hikahangpu’  tenth.

From the above table, we will notice that:

  1. Tausug hi> is only present in the infinitive and the Future, and has been dropped in the Initiated and progressive. We know its been dropped since this also happened in the other verb prefixes ma>, mag> and <un as well but not in other affixes, and its sister languages retains the affixes in all forms. In <an it was not dropped as it will get confused with the <un forms. For <um> and m>, in <um> was not dropped as it inside the verb, and in m> the addition of <iy> did not result in more syllables.
  2. The n in <in> infix (Realis marker or marker for Inceptive Aspect?) was also dropped and replaced with a semivowel y <iy> for the Realis Mood. This happened in the other affixes (<un, <an, m>) and <um> ( with <im> from <inum> so expected is <iyum> then <im> after dropping <u>) but not in ma> (with nag> from mina> so expected is miya> then ya> by dropping mi>) and  mag> (with nag> from minag> so expected is miyag> then yag> by dropping mi>) . Is it likely that the syllable dropping (#1) occurred first before the change of <in> to <iy>?
  3. There is no distinction between infinitive and future. This behavior is similar to what is found in Kapampangan and Ilokano. Could it be that the Tausug future form is the proto Bisayan language future form or the original form since it does exists in the progressive form and only there, or Tausug dropped the progressive aspect indicator (CV reduplication, which may have a present and past interpretation) in the future form? Can the progressive form be used with future interpretation as well?
  4. It uses reduplication to indicate progressive aspect, which is not common in other Bisayan languages like Sugbuhanon, Hiligaynon, etc. Sugbuhanon is supposedly closer to it but uses <a> for a few prefixes like mag> to indicate progressive aspect like  naga> or ga>. Example: galakaw (nagalakaw; naglakaw)   (walking) ; gakaon (nagakaon; nagkaon) (eating). Tom Marking said that Sugbuhanon uses naga> for present to indicate ongoing actions, and maga> or mag> can be used interchangeably for future.

Another unusual thing in Tausug is that it has a few similarities with Kapampangan apart from the Future form:

  1. It uses in and sin for Common noun phrase markers, while Kapampangan uses ing, ning, and king.
  2. It has (alveolo)palatal phonemes j,ch,ny while Kapampangan has ny.
  3. Some words have <l> or lost it in both while Bikol and Warayan languages have <r> or <l>.

Possible Origin

From the same page, it is also noticeable that some of Tausug forms starting with h> has an s> counterpart in other languages:

Personal Phrase marker, Singular hi Tagalog: si
Bikol: si
Personal Phrase marker, Plural hinda Tagalog: sina
Bikol: sa
Locative Phrase marker


Tagalog: sa
Bikol: sa
”in what order”


Tagalog: pang-ilan
Bikol: ikapira
Ten hangpu Tagalog: sampu
one hambuuk Tagalog: sambuo
one hundred hanggatus Bikol: sanggatos
one thousand hangibu Tagalog: sanglibo

Except of course:

  Tausug Tagalog
Nominative pronoun 3rd person, Singular siya Tagalog: siya
Bikol: siya
Nominative pronoun 3rd person, plural sila Tagalog: sila
Sugbuhanon: sila
Genitive Phrase marker, Specific


Hiligaynon: sing

So the s > h change could be a recent and existing change in Tausug (like in Samarnon?) and does not explain h> initial prefixes. According to Blust, the prefix hi> was the more original form in the Philippines:

Like *Sa-, *Si- is reflected in several Formosan languages, as with Atayal s-, Bunun is-,
and Paiwan si- ‘instrumental voice’. In the Philippines it is reflected as i- (Itbayaten,
Ilokano, Bontok, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Bikol, Cebuano i-), where either singly or in
combination with other affixes it marks instrumental voice, benefactive voice, or
sometimes other relationships. In the central Philippines the expected reflex of PAN *Si- is
**hi-, but like *Sika- ‘prefix of ordinal numerals’, and some other high-frequency
morphemes (PAN *Sepat, PMP *epat ‘four’) this affix shows an irregular loss of expected

Thus, the Tausug forms (hi>, hika> and hipang>) may be the original ones, and the following conjugated Tagalog forms may indicate what were the original forms for hi> as an example.

Past ibigay hibigay
Present ibinibigay hibinibigay
Infinitive ibigay hibigay
Future ibibigay hibibigay

Other Language Features

Other features in Tausug that is different from Tagalog are:

(1) The presence of j (native words) , ny, and ch (allophone of ss). Gemination of non-glottal consonants.

(2) The Reciprocal <i suffix (which is also present in Hiligaynon, Sugbuhanon, Samarnon and other Bisayan languages) and full reduplication of stem (reciprocal, diminutive).

(3) The presence of dual pronouns. Also present in Tagalog but with different origin.

Bikol Phrase Markers, Part 2

This is a continuation of an earlier post.


In Another Look at the Marking of Plural Personal Noun Constructions in Austronesian Languages, Laurence Reid mentions some Bikol dialects that distinguishes nonpast/nonreferential vs. past/referential phrase markers:

”some of the dialects of Southern Bikol in the Central Philippines, part of a different primary branch of Austronesian, have a “virtually identical system” of genitive marking: nu ‘genitive of common nouns, +referential ~ +past’, ni ‘genitive of persons (singular)’, na ‘genitive of persons (plural)’.” 

Chris Sundita calls this “something that was already mentioned”. Malcolm Mintz also mentioned that

nin nonsubject agent and object marker occurring before general nouns and marking those nouns as nonspecific; may also be used to express the concept ‘some’ ..also used with si as nin si to show possession by s/o or s/t previously referred to in a conversation or known by both speaker and listener, and to make nonsubject objects specific]”.

This is referred to by Matthew Dryer as an aphoric function:

There are, broadly speaking, two functions associated with definite articles. One of these is an anaphoric function, to refer back to something mentioned in the preceding discourse. The other is a nonanaphoric function, to refer to something not mentioned in the preceding discourse but whose existence is something that the speaker assumes is known to the hearer. This assumed knowledge may be based on general knowledge (as in the sun) or it may be based on inferences that the hearer can make in context (for example, inferring from mention of a house that the house has a door, thus making it possible to use a definite article in referring to the door of the house). In some languages, the morphemes treated here as definite articles appear to be restricted to anaphoric usage in that descriptions assign them translations like ‘previously mentioned’.”

These anaphoric forms in Bikol are:

  Nominative Genitive Non-Definite Genitive Definite
  NonAnaphoric Anaphoric NonAnaphoric Anaphoric NonAnaphoric Anaphoric
Naga an si nin nin si kan kan si
kaso (past)
an su nin nin su kan kan su
kaso (past)
Guinobatan an su nin nu kan ??
Rinconada a su ki / kin ?? ka ku (past)



In On Reconstructing the Morphosyntax of Proto-Northern Luzon, Lawrence Reid described some languages north of Bikol with phrase markers that distinguishes +remote and –remote, which may be analogous with either anaphoric vc. non-anaphoric or definite vs. indefinite based on the descriptions of usage.

(a) Casiguran Dumagat – found in east coast of Luzon, Aurora Province.


“Headland and Headland (1974) has two distinct sets of common noun markers. The singular Nominative forms are i and tu. The distinction between these forms is somewhat complex. The first marks nouns that are “alive, known, actual, in sight, present in time…” (ex. ??). The second set marks nouns that are “dead, unknown, out of sight, past in time…” (ex. ??) (ibid p. xxxii). In addition Headland (p.c.) notes that "these definitions are grossly inadequate and in some contexts these labels are not only incorrect, but the opposite of what they imply." Thus although i is said to mark nouns that are general, and tu marks those that are specific, it is tu that marks indefinite nouns after existential verbs (ex. ??), but i which marks indefinite nouns when they are first introduced into a discourse. Furthermore although i is said to mark nouns that are general, the enclitic determiners =eh and =a occur only on nouns that are marked with i. The clitic “adds the meaning of definiteness or exactness to the thing or place referred to.” Casiguran Dumagat genitive no and locative to appear to have developed from sequences of *na+u and *ta+u respectively, rather than from *nu and *tu with vowel lowering, since high vowel lowering only occurred when the vowel was stressed.”

(b) Paranan – found in the east coast of Isabela.  A few description by Reid in “Historical linguistics and Philippine hunter-gatherers” of Paranan:

“Paranan, on the other hand, although showing considerable influence from Tagalog, with 45 percent shared vocabulary (Headland 1975), clearly retains case markers and pronouns which are very conservative. Specifically, it appears to be the only language in Luzon that still retains a di locative preposition for common noun phrases, e.g., di bilay ‘to the house’, alongside proper noun locations, such as di Manila ‘to Manila’ (Finkbeiner 1983:6). Although di occurs in many languages with various other case-marking functions and occurs widely as the initial formative of locative adverbs and demonstratives, it is as a locative preposition that it is reconstructible for Proto-Extra-Formosan.”


“In Paranan (Finkbeiner 1983:9) i marks nominative common noun phrases whose referents are "present, seen, specific, or actual". These features define what I referred to above as PROXIMATE. On the other hand, nominative common noun phrases that are "absent, not seen, unspecific, or non- actual", features which define REMOTE, are marked by en.”

Robinson and Lobel further comments in The Northeastern Luzon Subgroup of Philippine Languages:

“"The Paranan case markers pose a particular problem. Most of the Paranan forms are similar to forms found in the Agta languages (for example, *i NOM, *ti GEN/OBL), usually Pahanan Agta, but a few of the forms (en‘ NOM.DEF’, nen ‘GEN.DEF’, and ten ‘OBL’) do not appear to have an origin in PNELUZ. Taking into consideration that en, nen, and ten are likely from earlier *in, *nin, and *tin (since Paranan [e] often corresponds to Central Philippine *i in closed syllables), the first two forms (*in and *nin) both have cognates in Central Philippine languages: Old Bikol had both *in ‘ NOM. NONREF’ and *nin‘ GEN.NONREF’, while *in also has cognates in Waray-Waray and other Warayan languages, in Tausug, and in the Kamayo dialect of Barobo town. Genitive *nin has cognates in most Bikol languages and in Romblomanon. The *tin form could be from Pahanan Agta ti, with the final *-n being the result of analogy with the *in and *nin forms. Note that the *ʔ- : *n- : *t- contrast (where *ʔ- corresponds to the phonemically vowel-initial form) is also found in Southern Ibanag, whose case markers are iC ‘ NOM’, nəC ‘GEN’,and təC ‘OBL’ (with the final segment being a copy of the first consonant of the following word). However, the vowels do not match, as Paranan /e/ is not cognate with Ibanag /ə/. final *-n being the result of analogy with the *in and *nin forms. Notethat the *ʔ- : *n- : *t- contrast (where *ʔ- corresponds to the phonemically vowel-initial form) is also found in Southern Ibanag, whose case markers are iC ‘ NOM’, nəC ‘ GEN’,and təC ‘OBL’ (with the final segment being a copy of the first consonant of the following word). However, the vowels do not match, as Paranan /e/ is not cognate with Ibanag /ə/.”

Paranan (as PAR) and Casiguran Dumagat (as CAS) as shown in Robertson and Lobel relabeled and fitted in the same categorization:


Casiguran indefinite tu/no/to functions differently from Paranan definite en/nen/ten.

(c) Isneg or Isnag – found in Northern Apayao, Luzon.


(d) Another possible language is Northern Subanen mentioned by Reid in a footnote:


I have not seen phrase markers in  Sugbuhanon, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan and Ilokano that distinguish anaphoric vs. non-anaphoric or +remote vs. –remote. Tagalog seems to have yung and nung and Samarnon has it and hit.


Examples of usage in the internet are shown below for Coastal Bikol:

from here:

  1. Olay nin si lalaking nagbobonbon pighahapot sya kun anong ginigibo nya kaya nagsimbag "BOMBON".
  2. Kan enot na pagtuntung kan si mga kastila sa lugar na ini, an Bombon bantug na dakulon an mga layas na manok.
  3. Alagad dai ini nahaloy. Huli ta kan dumatung si mga Americano kan Febrero 11, 1990, dakulang pagbabago si nangyari.
  4. Sarong aldaw may lalaking nagbonbon nin paroy nganing magdulok si mga manok.
  5. Hominapot liwat si Kastila kun ano an ngaran kan lugar. Si daraga hona gayod gustong maaraman kun masain sya.
  6. Na kadtong pinag-gigibo pa sana ining kampanaryo kan simbahan si pundasyon nagbaba pasiring sa sarong direksyon kaya bakong tanos.
  7. Si mga tawo nagpetisyon na harahaton tolos ta kun dagoson tibaad ma tumba, alagad si kura paroko nag-insistir na padagosonan trabaho kun kaya nahaman sa bakong tanos na tindog-huraray sa solnopan.

from here:

  1. Kaso sarung aldao. Nag-ataman akong punay. Nakasangle, nakaribay Nin si ogma ko kasakitan
  2. Tominaas, bominaba, Nagtoro si sakung luha.
  3. Dagos ako bangon si sakuyang mata binuklat.
  4. Dae ako pigtao sa nakabakal nin si planta nin cemento, kutana, para na rin akong nagtatrabaho sa abroad. (from here)
  5. Pinahidan mo an sakuyang payo nin si lana (from here)
  6. Magpost ka kuya ning mga picture kan si mga previous na mga andas ni Ina (from here)
  7. Hirak man kan si mga apektado, asin si mga nagadanan. (from here)

from others:

  1. Kaidto may nagpasabong saiya na giraray na ibalik na sana an sira sa danaw, kan su pagbalikan niya, hidaling nag-ulaptik an sira sa tubig asin naglangoy parayo. (from here)
  2. Dai ko malilikayan na dai maghapot kun anong espesyal sa lugar na ini para iyo an tawan kan suanoy na ngaran kan Partido de Tabaco kan su ibang banwa nagsaradiri naman ki pangaran. (from here)
  3. Kan su mga misyonerong Kastila naka–ukod man mag–Bikol, su edukasyon kan mga suanoy na Bikolnon gabos na naiba, tinangad ninda su mga Kastila, napa–ugos sainda.(from here)

Examples of usage in the internet are shown below for Inland Bikol:

from here:

  1. Narigos kami nu akos ko sa solong usad na aldaw.
  2. Sabi nu  pinsan ko, tibad ngaya kuya bogs nasibang?
  3. Bata grabe an pagtipid ta, nakastan pa kita nu bulong.
  4. Bigla ngana nagsabi su para inibang, nasibang ngaya noy si nene mo.
  5. Pakatapos kaito, linayd su duga sa payo.
  6. Su pinaka simple ko sana itao.
  7. Ilalayd ngana su duga sa manlaen-laen na parte nin  lawas kina su narunot na dawn, ibubutang sa  pusod.

from here:

  1. Gusto ko sana kayang mamate su dati kong buway ku panahon na diri pirmi nakaporma o pantalon o sotana.
  2. Di man siguro kaipuwan maggibo kin milagro nganing maitao a pangangaipo ka mga tawo arog ku ginibo ni Hesus.
  3. Ikarwang sinabi ni Hesus ku nakapako siya sa krus
  4. Ku ginibo na si adan saka si eba, ariglado na ngamin.
  5. Ginibo uyan ku parataban.
  6. Sa kadakul na ribok sa palibot ni Hesus ku siya nakapako, usad na boses sana a narungog niya
  7. Bagana sinda su mga disipulos ni Hesus na nagtibwasan ku sya rakupon.
  8. Arog ku pagmate ni Dimas ku siya sinabiwan ni Hesus.
  9. Ading ikarwang sinabi ni hesus ku nakapako siya sa krus, parumrom adi kanato ngamin.
  10. Bisi na naman a mga nganga sa pagbisara na tatawan kana kaipuwan su mga nakanga-nga ta uda na makaon.
  11. Balikan ta su mga nangyari sa daan na tipan.
  12. Pero ngamin uyan nauda kawasa si Adan ag si Eba, mas pinili ninda su pansadiri nindang kagustuwan.
  13. Nagpoon na su kasalan.  Nakamate na sinda kin kadipisilan, nag-alop, nagtios, buko nang magayonm agko na problema, agko na kagranan a tawo.
  14. Su gibo niyang pagsolsol nagdara kanya sa paraiso.
  15. Dapat malinaw a kanatong isip sa pagpili kana mga gusto tang magdara kanato sa paraiso, su mga tawo na pwede man pagsakripisyo nganing mabayad ta su paraiso.
  16. Sari na su katuninongan, hustisya ag pagkaon sa  mga nag-aalop?

from here:

  1. Kakulor nu bandera su bandilyong kaogmahan.
  2. Sa kastigo nin bagyo, su kusog iyong tukod.
  3. Sumirang su liwanag sa kadlagan kan gamgam.
  4. Kan pigsurok nu ulod su kuwebang daing paros.
  5. Buminuklad su dahon sa pisog nin paglalang.
  6. Sa musika nin ogma, su pagmondo nawarak;
  7. Nu Agosto sa oma, binayubo nin paghigos
  8. An atang ka’ning burak bulawan man su kakolor.
  9. Nu Hulyo sa solnupan, paglaom an nagin timon.

from here:

  1. Lin-nuwas su ngaran bigla ku alkalde sadto stage, ku gobernador sadto atop, ku kongresman sadto alad, ku kapitan sadto basuran.
  2. Alagad ku mag-brigada eskwela ku usad na semana, ag gamiton su madyik na pintura na kaamu man sa kolor kadtung sadto pabaloy na kuru-kalinga.

from here:

  1. Su gira nu gitara Pigsusog ta ning kanta (The foottracks of glad guitars We retrace with melodies )
  2. Su hadok nu sampaga Pigsaray ta sa plawta (The kiss of jasmine flowers We treasure in fervent flutes )

Bikol Phrase Markers, Part 1

In a three part series, Wilmer Tria talked about the use of Bikol nin and kan, that kan is specific and nin is general.

Examples provided in the first part of the series illustrate the usage:

#1. May I borrow a pencil?

Bikol Pasubli daw nin   lapis?
  IMP.borrow may GEN.INDEF pencil

#2. May I borrow your pencil?

Bikol Pasubli daw kan   lapis mo?
  IMP.borrow may GEN.DEF pencil GEN.2P.SGL

As Tria said “In the first sentence, lapis could refer to any lapis, while in the second, lapis is specific.

He further asserts in the 3rd part that

“Nin, on the other hand, is used when the object is not only non-specific but also indefinite….kan is used only when the object becomes specific.”

Tria did not clarify the meaning of his terms, but judging from his preceding statement, if something is specific even if indefinite, that would use kan; and if definite unspecific, then that scenario was not covered by his statement. To sum it up in a chart:

  Definite Indefinite
Specific kan kan
Unspecific ?? nin

More examples provided by him.

Bikol English
#3. Mainom ako nin tubig. I will drink water.
#4. Bugtakan mo nin suka. Put (some) vinegar.
#5. Kulang iyan nin asukar. That lacks sugar.
#6. Painom daw kan tubig na nasa baso mo. May I drink the water in your glass.

He give two instances when something is specific:

(1)  “kan … is made specific by demonstrative pronouns such as iyan or idto or by possessive pronouns such as sako or saindo or by any other modifiers making the object indeed specific. Without these indicators, nin is still the correct use.”, and illustrates with the following examples:

Bikol English
#7. sa ngaran kan sakong pamilya in behalf of my family
#8. tugang kan sakong ama brother of my father
#9. ina kan saiyang pinsan mother of his cousin
#10. pasubli kan saimong awto may I borrow your car
#11. pahagad man kan dokumentong iyan may I ask for that document


(2) “Kan … is specific by nature of its concrete situation, in that, the object referred to is specific already to both speaker and listener. This is natural in daily conversations, but rarely in writing.”

Bikol English
#12. paki-abot tabi kan papel please hand me the paper
#13. pakitao man saiya kan baso please pass on the glass


In the second part, he pointed out a difficulty with the rule: “The difficulty arises, however, when the object referred to is the divine or the unknown. We will observe that in almost all of the texts available, nin is used instead of kan.”

Bikol English
#14. Ina nin Dyos Mother of God
#15. Tinapay nin Buhay The Bread of Life
#16. Tataramon nin Kagurangnan Word of the Lord
#17. Sampolong Tugon nin Dyos Ten Commandments of God
#18. Bunyagan nindo sinda sa ngaran nin Ama, nin Aki, asin nin Espiritu Santo. Baptize them in the name of the Father, of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.

And he asks:

Why is it that Bikolano speakers consistently use nin as a marker for the divine? Why does the use of it come out so natural in our speech, in our writing?” and he answered in the 3rd part: “I am inclined to believe that our ancestors never regarded God as an object so concrete and specific, but something that is mysterious and unknown. This, I think, is the reason why nin instead of kan is used to refer to God or anything that is divine. To the Bikol speaking community, God is not something we can refer to similar to the way we refer to concrete objects such as ‘ama ko,’ ‘sapatos mo,’ or harong ninda.’ He is not something definite and controllable, but a mystery that forever unfolds itself. Indeed, He is something that is immaterial and infinite. Kan is not used even, or perhaps rarely, when God or the divine goes with specifying pronouns. Observe the following examples: ‘Ina nin satong Kagtubos,’ (Mother of our Savior); ‘Ina nin satong Kaglalang,’ (Mother of our Creator).”

As noted by Tria, even if the referent is specific, still, ‘nin’ is used. A search for ‘nin’ in the online Bikol Bible reveals 1,117 occurrences of “nin Dios” , most of which have the “dios” not qualified by a determiner or adjective, and for some that are qualified to make them specific, still use ‘nin’. Some examples follow:

2 Cor 1:2 Mapasaindo logod an biyaya asin katoninongan nin Dios na satong Ama asin ni Jesu-Cristo na Kagurangnan
Gal 1:1 kundi sa paagi ni Jesu-Cristo asin nin Dios Ama na nagbuhay liwat ki Jesus sa mga gadan.
Gal 5:8 Bako iyan gibo nin Dios na nag-apod saindo.
Col 2:12 huli sa pagtubod nindo sa kapangyarihan nin Dios na iyo an nagbuhay liwat ki Cristo.
1 Tess 2:4 Naghihingowa kaming mawilihan bako nin mga tawo kundi nin Dios na nagbabalo kan satong mga puso.
2 Tess 2:16 Rangahon man logod kamo saka pakosogon an boot nindo ni Jesu-Cristo na satong Kagurangnan asin nin Dios na satong Ama, na namoot sato, na sa saiyang biyaya nagtao sato nin daing kataposan na kosog nin boot asin pusog na paglaom, tanganing danay kamong makagibo asin makasabi kan gabos na marahay.
1 Tim 6:13 Sa atubang nin Dios na nagtatao nin buhay sa gabos, saka sa atubang ni Cristo Jesus na nagpahayag kan saiyang pagtubod sa atubangan ni Poncio Pilato, pinagbobotan taka:
Titus 3:4 Alagad kan ihayag an karahayan asin an pagkamoot nin Dios na satong Paraligtas,
Fil 1:3 Mapasaindo logod an biyaya asin an katoninongan nin Dios na satong Ama asin ni Jesu-Cristo na Kagurangnan.
Heb 1:9 Namomoot ka sa katanosan asin naoongis sa karatan; kaya linahidan ka nin Dios, na saimong Dios, kan lana nin kaogmahan orog ki sa ibang mga hade.”
Heb 10:31

Makangingirhat an padusa nin Dios na buhay sa mga tawong naggigibo nin siring!

Heb 11:6 Huli ta an siisay man na minadolok sa Dios dapat magtubod na igwa nin Dios na nagtatao nin marahay na balos sa mga naghahanap saiya.
1 Pet 1:23 kundi sa kapangyarihan kan tataramon nin Dios na buhay saka nagdadanay sagkod lamang.
1 Pet 2:9 Pinili kamo tanganing magbareta kan mga makangangalas na gibo nin Dios na iyo an nag-apod saindo hale sa kadikloman pasiring sa saiyang makangangalas na liwanag.

Care must be taken that the na phrase modifier modifies “dios”, which might not be, like in the following cases:

Mar 9:1 “Sa katotoohan sinasabihan ko kamo, igwa nin nagkapira digdi na dai magagadan sagkod na dai ninda mahiling na dumatong an Kahadean nin Dios na may kapangyarihan.”
Luk 8:12 minaabot an Demonyo dangan inaagaw an tataramon nin Dios na isinabwag sa puso ninda tanganing dai sinda magtubod saka dai makaligtas.
Luk 12:24 Kamo pa daw an dai pakakanon nin Dios na mas mahalaga ki sa mga gamgam?
Acts 7:42 Huli kaini pinabayaan sinda nin Dios na magsamba sa mga bitoon siring sa nasusurat sa libro kan mga propeta
2 Cor 6:1 Kaya bilang mga kaiba sa paglingkod sa Dios, nakikimaherak kami saindo, na mga nag-ako kan biyaya nin Dios na dai nindo iyan pagsayangon.
2 Tim 2:14 Pagiromdomon mo kaini an mga paratubod asin patanidan mo sinda sa atubang nin Dios na
dai magparadiriskutiran dapit sa mga tataramon
Heb 7:28 alagad an panuga na sinumpaan nin Dios, na nangyari pakatapos niyang itao an Katogonan,

But there are uses of kan Dios as well, only there are fewer of them: 22 instances, with even some instances where “dios” is unmodifed:

(a) To show contrast between the Jewish God and other gods (6 instances).

Gibo 7:43 Pinagburuligan nindo an tolda kan dios-dios na si Moloc, asin an bitoon kan dios-dios nindong si Refan
Gibo 19:24 Naggigibo siya nin mga saradit na templong plata kan diosang si Diana.
Gibo 19:27 pwedeng mawaraan man nin halaga an templo kan dakulang diosa na si Diana; mahahale an kabantogan kan diosa, an diosa na sinasamba sa Asia asin sa bilog na kinaban!
2 Cor 1:4 Dai sinda minatubod huli ta binuta an saindang mga isip kan dios kaining kinaban, tanganing dai ninda mahiling an liwanag kan Marahay na Bareta dapit sa kamurawayan ni Cristo na iyo an kabaing nin Dios.
2 Cor 16:6 Paanong magkaoyon an templo nin Dios asin an mga dios-dios? Huli ta kita iyo an templo kan Dios na buhay! Siring sa sinabi nin Dios, “Mag-eerok ako sainda asin maglalakaw sa kaibahan ninda; ako an magigin Dios ninda, sinda an magigin banwaan ko.”

(b) Its an active entity that been referred anaphorically (1 instance).

Tito 1:3 2 basado sa paglaom tang magkaigwa nin buhay na daing kataposan. An Dios, na dai nagpuputik, nanuga sato kan buhay na iyan bago pa lalangon an kinaban. 3 Kan nag-abot an tamang panahon, ipinahayag niya iyan sa saiyang mensahe. Ipinaniwala iyan sako asin iyo an ipinaghuhulit ko huli sa pagboot kan Dios na satong Paraligtas.

(c) due to parallel construction (2 instances):

Mat 23:21 An minasumpa sa ngaran kan Templo, minasumpa bako sana sa ngaran kan Templo kundi sa ngaran man kan Dios na nag-eerok diyan.
Kap 22:1 Ipinahiling pa sako kan anghel an salog kan tubig nin buhay, nagkikintab siring sa kristal, na nagbubulos hale sa trono kan Dios asin kan Kordero,

(d) where “Dios” will have an adjectival modification that starts with “nin” , maybe due to euphony (5 instances):

Gibo 22:14 Pinili ka kan Dios nin satong mga ginikanan tanganing maaraman mo an saiyang kabotan
Rom 15:3 Panoon logod kamo nin kaogmahan saka katoninongan kan Dios nin paglaom
Rom 16:20 Dai na mahahaloy, roronoton kan Dios nin katoninongan si Satanas
1 Tess 5:23 Pakabanalon logod kamo nin lubos kan Dios nin katoninongan;
Heb 13:21 Itao logod saindo kan Dios nin katoninongan an gabos na marahay na bagay tanganing magibo nindo an saiyang kabotan;

These are not counter-examples because the nin phrase is a genitive of the verb, not “dios:

Gibo 7:10 Tinawan siya nin Dios nin kadonongan

and other verses of similar structure like: Gibo 17:30. Rom 2:7, Rom 12:6, 1 Cor 7:7, 1 Cor 14:30, Col 2:13, 2 Tim 2:25, Heb 6:17, Jud 1:13

(e) where Dios is modified (4 instances). (Note that nin is also used for modified “dios” in other verses.)

Col 1:15 Si Cristo an ladawan kan Dios na dai nahihiling.
Col 3:10 dangan naggubing na kamo nin bagong pagkatawo na danay na binabago kan Dios na Kaglalang sosog sa sadiri niyang ladawan tanganing orog na mamidbidan nindo siya.
Kap 7:12 Dangan nahiling ko an saro pang anghel na nag-iitaas hale sa sirangan dara an selyo kan Dios na buhay. Sa makosog na tingog inapod kan anghel na ini an apat na anghel na tinawan nin Dios kan kapangyarihan sa pagraot kan daga asin dagat.
Kap 16:14 Sinda an mga espiritu kan mga demonyo na nagpapahiling nin mga milagro. Dinuduman kan tolong espiritung ini an gabos na hade sa bilog na kinaban tanganing tiponon sinda para sa gera pag-abot kan dakulang Aldaw kan Dios na Makakamhan.

There are no occurrences of  “Dios na Kaglalang” and “Dios na buhay” with nin like that in In Col 1:15 and Col 3:10.

In Kap 7:2 , “selyo kan Dios na buhay”, Dios is modified, while an unmodified Dios uses nin in “selyo nin Dios”(Kap 7:4 and Kap 9:4:14).

In Kap 16:14, “Aldaw kan Dios na Makakamhan”, Dios is modified, while an unmodified Dios uses nin in “Aldaw nin Dios” (2 Pet 3:12).

(f) 4 instances that I still don’t know why, and could easily be written of as over-generalizations from the other uses.

Juan 6:27 Dai kamo magpagal para sa kakanon na nalalapa, kundi para sa kakanon na nagdadanay sagkod sa buhay na daing kataposan, na itatao saindo kan Aki nin Tawo; huli ta sa saiya ibinugtak kan Dios Ama an saiyang tanda.”
Rom 8:19 An gabos na linalang tudok sa puso na naghahalat na ihayag kan Dios an saiyang mga aki.
1 Tim 1:2 Para ki Timoteo na tunay kong aki sa pagtubod: Mapasaimo logod an biyaya, pagkaherak asin katoninongan kan Dios Ama saka ni Cristo Jesus na satong Kagurangnan.
2 Tim 1:2 Para ki Timoteo na namomotan kong aki: Mapasaimo logod an biyaya, pagkaherak asin katoninongan kan Dios Ama saka ni Cristo Jesus na satong Kagurangnan.


Unfortunately, his conclusion about the divine cannot be used for another anomaly of nin use, that for something definite and specific yet not divine, like names of places:

Mat 2:1 Namundag si Jesus sa Betlehem nin Judea, kan si Herodes an hade.
Mat 2:6 Ika, Betlehem, sa daga nin Juda,
Mat 2:21 Kaya ipinag-iba ni Jose an mag-ina papuli sa daga nin Israel.
Mat 2:22 nagdagos siya sa daga nin Galilea.
Mat 3:1 duman sa kalangtadan nin Judea.
Mat 3:5 sagkod an mga nag-eerok sa mag-ibong kan Salog nin Jordan.
Mat 4:13 An banwaan na ini nasa tampi kan Danaw nin Galilea, sa teritoryo nin Zabulon asin Neftali.
Mat 27:42 Kun siya talaga an Hade nin Israel, humilig siya sa krus ngunyan asin matubod kita saiya!
Mat 3:2 “huli ta uya na an Kahadean nin langit!”

And can be heard as well in the phrase “syudad nin Naga/Legazpi/Iriga”.


This behaviour in Bikol contrasts with languages to its south and west. Tagalog and Tausug do not make distinction, so are irrelevant for this post. Hiligaynon, Samarnon, Sugbuhanon and Romblomanon all have lots of indefinite genitive phrase markers used in their bibles. 

I’m not sure if Kiniray-a does not distinguishes definite and indefinite (“it”?) genitives, most of the occurrences is “kang Dios”. Masbatenyo and other Bisakol languages have sin and san, Aklanon has it and ku , Asi has it and it kag but there are no online bibles for these so I can’t check the frequency of usage. Chart courtesy of Jason Lobel here (Asi seems to have a distinction in the nominative with kag/ka vs. ling like Waray with an vs. in!).


In Hiligaynon, most expressions are “sang Dios” , but has 1 instance of “sing dyosnon” and only 2 instances of “sing Dios”. These are used only in negative expressions “wala sing Dios” in Ephesians 2:12 and 1 Timothy 1:9. Romblomanon has ning and ng, but seems to follow the Bisayan model based on their bible usage for placenames and “Dios”; it uses the indefinite in negative expressions: “wayà ning Dios.”

Samarnon has no instance of  “hin Dyos”, only 4 instances of “hin dyosnon” and lots of “han Dyos” and did not use “hin” in negative expresssions: “waray Dyos”. Sugbuhanon has none as well, its 4 instances of “ug Dios” mean “and God”, 1 instance of “ug dyosnon” and lots of “sa Dios” and none as well in negative expressions: “walay Dios”. For both Samarnon and Sugbuhanon, I think the y in waray is the equivalent phrase marker of hin here.

Here’s a comparison of these languages’ usage with respect to Bikol’s anomalous use:

Verse Bikol Romblomanon Hiligaynon Samarnon Sugbuhanon
John 6:1 Danaw nin Galilea Tinagong Dagat nang Galilea Linaw sang Galilea Lanaw han Galilea Lanaw sa Galilea
John 10:40 Salog nin Jordan

nang Jordan

suba sang Jordan Salog han Jordan Suba sa Jordan
John 6:37 itinatao sako nin Ama ginatao nang Amay sa akon ginahatag sang Amay sa akon itinutubyan ha akon han Amay gihatag kanako sa akong Amahan
John 5:4 anghel nin Kagurangnan anghel nang Ginoo anghel sang Ginoo anghel han Ginoo manolunda sa Ginoo
Eph 2:12 mayong paglaom asin mayong Dios wayà ning paglaom kag wayà ning Dios wala sing paglaom kag wala sing Dios waray paglaom ngan waray Dyos walay paglaom ug walay Dios
Heb 11:6 magtubod na igwa nin Dios magpati nga may Dios magtuo nga may Dios tumoo nga may-ada Dyos motuo nga adunay Dios

The Bikol “igwa nin Dios” and “mayong (mayo nin) Dios” are not an anomalous use, they were included to compare use with the other languages.


In his blog, Christopher Sundita stated that

Bikol has a more expanded system. an and si are both absolutive with si being the most "specific" of the two. Usually it refers to something that was already mentioned. nin and kan are the ergative counterparts, respectively….Kinakan kan lalaki an mansanas. (The man ate the apple. [again, refering to a previously-mentioned man.)

Actually, kan and si can be used at the same time, so they are not counterparts. Example: Hirak man kan si mga apektado.

I think the distinction between nin and kan is not just about specificity and more than that. Nin is used when (1) precise identity may be irrelevant, known yet not emphasized, or hypothetical, and (2) when the objective is to make general statement about any such thing. Even if the referent is already specific, there might be no need for it to be contrasted and identified from other generic, interchangeable referents similar to it with which it may get confused, thus will get marked with nin. Kan is used if the referring expression needs “contrastive definiteness”, if the referent needs to be contrasted or set-off thru (1) restrictive modification in writing, with the restrictive relative clause limiting it to a subset of the generic referent, or (2) saliency in  the given situational or discourse context. The restrictive relative clause that modifies the nominal provides the additional contrast with the other generic referents of that nominal, differentiate and distinguish it from the rest, and makes it noticeably prominent and set apart from the rest. Although the referent is highlighted, it need not be unambiguous or with precise limit or bounds.

I think this is the primary explanation for the difference between nin and kan, and explains the usages from Sentence #1 to #18. In nin lapis (#1), nin tubig (#3), nin suka (#4) and nin asukar (#5), the referents are interchangeable from others of its kind, any of its kind will do to satisfy. In kan lapis (#2), kan tubig (#6), kan pamilya (#7), kan ama (#8), kan pinsan (#9), kan awto (#10), kan dokumento (#10), kan papel (#11) and kan baso (#12), the referents have been singled out, or the object has been limited either by modification or by context.

This also explains the behaviour of nin+Proper names of places since “proper names are inherently definite” by being unique so there is no need to contrast. For example, in the phrase “syudad nin Naga”; Naga is marked with nin because in the Bikol Region, there is only one city named Naga. There is no need in day to day conversation to contrast or highlight from another Naga. There are other cities of Naga (Cebu) and when that is part of the conversation, then the one referred to will be the “syudad kan Naga”. Additionally, location names behave like mass nouns with cumulative property. Like mass nouns, if several places with same names are combined together, we don’t have a plural place name, but a singular name. If we have several places named Naga and we combined them together, we still end up with Naga and not “manga Naga”; the individual components become undifferentiated and lose their discreteness. “Nin Naga” focuses on its non-discreteness while “kan Naga” focuses on its definiteness.

In the same way in Sentences #14 to #18, the referents are already understood from context. Although “dios” is a Spanish borrowing, Pre-Hispanic Bikols already believe in a supreme God, called Gugurang, and “it was a matter of substituting figures for the highest god and the lesser forms of the divine”, according to most scholars.  Thus it’s possible that Gugurang would have been used with nin as well. Also, use of kan like “kan Dios” would indicate that there are several different gods that share a generic Godness quality. That idea is being eradicated when Bikolanos became Christians during Spanish times and that there is only 1 true god (Isaiah 46:9, John 17:3), especially that Nueva Caceres (Naga) was the seat of one of the suffragan sees of Manila and covers the Bikol Region, Tayabas and several islands in the eastern coast of Luzon. I think this project was so successful since an unmodified  “nin Dios” is understood to refer to a specific single God, thus “Dios” (the Jewish God) already has this primary meaning so there is no need to contrast it with another dios (demons, idols, etc.) with whom it might be confused.

That the word “Dios” is polysemous in Bikol, with the Jewish God as its primary meaning in most situations and the generic gods as its secondary meaning in restricted situations is obvious (again this is unusual compared with other Philippine languages that have this distinction, like Romblomanon, Hiligaynon, Samarnon and Masbatenyo, which always use a definite marker before “Dyos”.) Clauses modifying “dyos” are to be understood as non-restrictive, as the referent of the nominal would not change even if the non-restrictive clause is removed. This is understandable as the Godness of the Jewish God’s is thought to be unique to him in the Christian belief so that the unmodified word “Dios” is understood to refer to this single referent. But if the word “dyos” is used with its secondary meaning,  the modifying clause becomes restrictive, like in the expression “kan Diosa na si Diana”, kan is used because it is contrasted from either (a) the primary meaning, the Jewish God, or (b) secondary meaning, the other generic gods. This is possibly the reason as well for a few samples with “kan Dios” that refer to the Jewish God.

Unless we’re interpreting it with our modern pre-set Christian thinking. Its possible that “nin Dyos” originally has a meaning of a generic,  interchangeable god or an indefinite god in Bikol, as Tria has explained. But then again you will wonder why some other poorly understood ideas does not default to nin as well, or why “kan Dyos” is also felicitous.


Is Bikol’s use of nin before “God” with a primary meaning of a specific God and before place names a good one to carry over to the conlang? In the use with God its aberrant because it deviates from its normal usage, where normal usage change referents in meaning from generic to specific if the case marker is changed from nin to kan. Lapis from “nin lapis mo” to “kan lapis mo” move from generic to specific pencil. Tubig from “nin tubig na nasa baso” to “kan tubig na nasa baso” move from generic to specific water. Meanwhile, dios from “espiritu nin dios” to “espiritu kan Dios” remains specifically the Jewish God. This should not be carried over to the Filipino conlang.

The same with its use with place names, although it is quite dynamic since its a matter of speaker’s point of reference, like Naga from “syudad nin Naga” to “syudad kan Naga” even if Naga remains specific, this is actually very little discernable distinction so will confound learners. This should not be carried over to the Filipino conlang.

In Part 2, we will explore the differences between anaphoric and non-anaphoric markers in Bikol.

Filipino Personal Pronouns

Nominative Series

I accidentally come accross this Botolan Sambal personal pronoun series and I was quite struck with the regularity of the nominative series:

Number Person Nominative
Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) hiko -ako/-ko ko kongko
  1+2 (dual) hita -ta ta konta
2(singular) hika -ka mo komo
3 (singular) hiya -ya na kona
Augmented 1 (plural) hikayi -kayi nawen konnawen
1+2 (plural) hitamo -tamo tamo kontamo
2 (plural) hikawo -kawo moyo, yo komoyo
3 (plural) hila -hila la konla

Notice that all the Full Nominative personal pronouns starts with hi-, which was originally si-. Also the Oblique series all starts with k-.

Genitive Series

This reminds me as well of the Hanunoo Mangyan personal pronoun series where the Genitive all starts with ni-, as well as the Bisayan languages:

Number Person Nominative
Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako niko kangko
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) kawo nimo kanmo
3 (singular) siya niya kanya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita, ta nita kanta
1+2 (plural) kami nimi kanmi
2 (plural) siyu niyu kanyu
3 (plural) sida nida kanda

Samarnon has the following pronoun series:

Number Person Nominative
Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako/ak nakon/nak/ko akon/ak
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) ikaw/ka nimo/nin/mo imo/im
3 (singular) siya,hiya niya iya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita/ta
naton aton/at
1+2 (plural) kami
namon amon
2 (plural) kamo/kam niyu iyo
3 (plural) sila/hira nira ira

The na> of Samarnon in the Genitive for 1 singular and  plural and 1+2 plural developed from the sequence ni+akon, ni+aton, and ni+amon with accompanying vowel loss, and happened in Tagalog (namin, natin), Amis (nako, namo) and Sugbuhanon as well but not in Bikol (niako, niamo, niato), described by Reid on page 245.

Sugbuhanon has this pronoun series.

Number Person Nominative
Minimal 1 (singular) ako/ko ako/akoha nako/ko nako/kanako
1+2 (dual) * * * *
2 (singular) ikaw/ka imo/imoa nimo/mo nimo/kanimo
3 (singular) siya, sya iya/iyaha niya niya/kaniya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita/ta ato/atoa nato nato/kanato
1+2 (plural) kami/mi amo/amoa namo namo/kanamo
2 (plural) kamo inyo/inyoha ninyu ninyo/kaninyo
3 (plural) sila ila/ilaha nila nila/kanila

Topic Series

Kapampangan , on the other hand, has nominative series that starts with i-, which would be the equivalent Topic series in Amis below:

Number Person Nominative
Nominative(enclitic) Genitive
Minimal 1 (singular) iaku/aku ku ku kanako, kaku
1+2 (dual) ikata kata, ta ta kekata
2 (singular) ika ka mu keka
3 (singular) iya, ya ya na kaya/keya
Plural 1 (plural) ikatamo, itamo katamu, tamu tamu, ta kekatamu, kekata
1+2 (plural) ikami, ike kami, ke mi kekami, keke
2 (plural) ikayu, iko kayu, ko yu kekayu, keko
3 (plural) ila la da, ra karela

Amis personal pronoun series is like this:

Number Person Nominative
Minimal 1 (singular) kako nako
itakoan ako
1+2 (dual)
2 (singular) kiso niso
itisoan iso
3 (singular) cira nira iciraan cira
Augmented 1 plural) kita mita
itamian ita
1+2 (plural) kami niam
ititaan ami
2  (plural) kamo namo
itamoan amo
3 (plural) kohni nohni
itohnian ohni

Oblique Series

Northern Catanduanes, one of Bikol varieties, uses ki– in a few Oblique pronouns:

Number Person Nominative Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako ko ako
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) ka mo imo
3 (singular) siya niya kiya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita nato ato
1+2 (plural) kami namo amo
2 (plural) kamo ninyo inyo
3 (plural) sila nila kila

And Agta Partido has ki– in these series as well:

Number Person Nominative Genitive Oblique
Minimal 1 (singular) ako ko kiyako
1+2 (dual) * * *
2 (singular) ka, ika mo kimo
3 (singular) iya niya, ya kunya
Augmented 1 (plural) kita ta kiyato
1+2 (plural) kami mi kiyamo
2 (plural) kamo yu kinyo
3 (plural) ida ninda kunda

Filipino Auxlang

With this info, we can now construct a Filipino auxlang with a regular pronoun series such as: (* found in a natural language, same case, # found in a natural language, different case)

Number Person Nominative
(enclitic) Genitive
Objective [ki]
(Dative /
Minimal 1 (singular) siko* -ko niko* kiko diko iko
1+2 (dual) sita* -ta nita* kita# dita ita*
2 (singular) simo# -mo nimo* kimo* dimo imo#
3 (singular) siya* -ya niya* kiya* diya iya#
Augmented 1 (plural) sito to nito kito dito ito
1+2 (plural) simi -mi nimi* kimi dimi imi
2 (plural) siyo* -yo niyo* kiyo diyo iyo
3 (plural) sira* -ra nira* kira* dira ira#

The Genitive prefix was assigned to ni– since its the most commonly used prefix for this case, same for si– .

The enclitic form’s case is dependent on the focus of the verb. If actor focus (AF), its Nominative, if it’s Non-actor Focus (NAF), its Genitive.

[di-] was chosen for Locative case since it patterns after demonstratives and locative case marker di. From Reid’s:


The Oblique starts with [ki-] since Kapampangan oblique case marker common singular is “king”, Bikol singular proper noun marker is “ki”; the ka- prefixed is from “kay”. 




Grammar differences for some Philippine languages, Part 1

Constantino has produced a table of comparison for Philippine languages in his “Sentence Patterns Of the Ten Major Philippine Languages”. From these sentences, we can see the differences between some of these languages.

I have tried to list down here some of these differences, based on the sample sentences only. It is quite possible that these languages can form sentences other than the one exhibited here.

1. The infix <um>

Affix Form

  Tagalog Waray Sebuano Tausug Ilokano Ibanag Pangasinan Kapampangan
Infinitive / Imperative <um>
-, mu>
Sentence# 107,103
Irrealis Mood or Future Tense CV> ma:> ma:> <um> maC> <um> mu>
Sentence# 95,100 95,100 95,100 95,100 95,100 95,100 95,100
Perfective Aspect, Realis Mood <um> <inm>
<imm> <imin>
<imm> me>,<in>,min>
Sentence # 1,2,3,
5,6,10, 57,58, 67,68, 97,101, 104
5, 6,10,




Progressive Aspect, Realis Mood C<um>V> na:>   <imm>,



Sentence # 75,76,77, ,78,79,80, 108 75,76,77,
79,80   76,77,
  Tagalog Waray Sebuano Tausug Ilokano Ibanag Pangasinan Kapampangan


  1. The languages that retained the use of the infix are Tagalog, Waray, Sebuano, Pangasinan and Kapampangan; while Tausug, Ilokano and Ibanag still use this but not uniformly or with some restrictions on use of <um> compared with other languages.
  2. The form “mangan” used in #103 used by Ilokano, Pangasinan and Kapampangan is difficult to say if using <um> or mag> or mang> affix. Same with Ibanag “miney” “went” in #6. In #103, Ilokano, Kapampangan and Pangasinan seemed to use mang> or mag>. Kapampangan word for “arrived” seemed not be be conjugated in <um> in #104. For #107, I do not know enough for the Ibanag and Kapampangan forms.
  3. In the Infinitive form, Cebuano and Kapampangan have similar form mu> while others have <um>. Tausug use of “my-” or <mi> in #6 instead of <im> could be related.
  4. Tagalog in the Perfective Aspect Realis Mood, in #4, used mag> with bigay, which does not combine with <um> with the meaning “give”.
  5. Waray used nag><CV> in the Progressive Aspect Realis Mood in #97. This is the only form that does not use <um> in Waray, so possibly there is an <um> form.
  6. Kapampangan exception in the Progressive Aspect Realis Mood is only #80, where it used ma><Ci>.
  7. Pangasinan in the Progressive Aspect Realis Mood only exception is the use of mang> in #108 and unaffixed stative verb in #75. In the Perfective Aspect Realis Mood, it seemed to use ang> in #2, #3, #58 and #68, and nan< in #4,#5.
  8. Ilokano used ag> in the Infinitive form in #107, in the Imperative form in #95, in the Irrealis Mood in #95 and #100, in the Perfective Aspect Realis Mood in #1 and nag> in #97. It also used it in the Progressive Aspect Realis Mood in #75,#76,#77,#78 in the form >ag<CVC> although there is another affix <um>base<in used in #79,#80 and just CVC> in #108. It used na> in #2, #6, and nang> in #4, #101.
  9. Ibanag forms for the Imperative Mood in #95 seemed to use the maC> affix, which has the naC> form in the Perfective Aspect Realis Mood in #1, #5, #10, #57,#67,#97. Ibanag seemed to use mang> in the form nang> in #4. In the Progressive Aspect Realis Mood, it uses either mag><CVC> in #75,#76,#77, or maC> in #78, #80, or CVC> in #108.
  10. Cebuano used nag><a> affix or its short form ga> for #75,#76,#77,#78,#79,#80 which are all weather/meteorological verbs. But also used ga> in #108. In the Perfective Aspect Realis Mood, it used nang> in #10.
  11. Tausug seemed to use na> in #3 and mang> in #4 in the Perfective Aspect Realis Mood. It used nag> in #97 and in the Progressive Aspect Realis Mood  nag><CV> in #78, unaffixed stative verbs in #75,#77, and na><CV> in #108. The form <imm> in #76 looks to me like a Perfective Aspect, not Progressive Aspect form, as well as the <im> form in #80.
  12. Bikol and Hiligaynon both used nag> prefix in all of the sentences above. Although in Bikol and Hiligaynon, there are Spanish grammars indicating that they used to employ <um> as well.
  13. Formation from the Imperative and Infinitive of the Perfective Aspect Realis Mood  is not uniform for all languages. Tagalog has the same forms (<um> / <um> ). Sebuano (mu> / ni>), Tausug (<um> / <im> ), Kapampangan (mu> / me>) seem to have vowel alternation. Waray (<um> / <inm>), Ilokano (<um> / <imm>), Pangasinan (<um> / <imm>) and Ibanag (<um> / <imin>) seem to indicate that the <in> and <um> are combined, but are in different order, with Ibanag infixing <um> after <in> unlike the rest. This Ibanag form <imin> actually matches the Bikol form <umin>.
  14. The formation from the Irrealis Mood of the Progressive Aspect Realis Mood is not uniform. Tausug (<um> / <um>) makes no distinction between the two. Cebuano (ma:> / none) and Ibanag (maC> / none) has no Progressive Aspect Realis Mood form. Ilokano ( none / <um><in>) makes no distinction on the Irrealis Mood. Waray (ma:> / na:>) changes the consonant.  Pangasinan (<um> / <un><CV>) has consonant and reduplication. Tagalog (CV> / C<um>V>) differentiates using <um>. And Kapampangan (mu>/ CV>) from prefixation to reduplication.
  15. Formation from the Perfective Aspect Realis Mood of the Progressive Aspect Realis Mood is not uniform. Sebuano (ni>/ none), Ibanag (<imin>/ none) have no Progressive Realis Mood forms. Tausug (<im> /<um> ) change in vowel. Waray (<inm> / na:>), Ilokano (<imm>/<um>base<in>) seemed to have split/combined the affixes. Tagalog (<um> / C<um>V>), Pangasinan (<imm>/<un><CV>) , Kapampangan( me> / CV>) all used CV> for the Progressive.
  16. Distinction between Infinitive and Irrealis Mood forms are not uniform as well. Ilokano( <um> / none) has no Irrealis Mood form. Tausug( <um> / <um>), Pangasinan( <um> / <um>), Kapampangan(mu> / mu>)make no distinction. Waray (<um> / ma:>), Sebuano( mu> /ma:>), Ibanag( <um> / maC>) seem to be related in the use of ma>. Tagalog(<um> / CV>) is the only one using reduplication.

Phrase Markers used

Phrase markers used with thematic relations in INTRANSITIVE (#1 agent – initiator of some action, capable of acting with volition), TRANSITIVE PATIENT (#2, #5 patient- entity undergoing the effect of some action, often undergoing some change of state; or theme – entity which is moved by an action, or whose location is described), TRANSITIVE RECIPIENT (#4 GOAL involved in actions describing changes of possession), TRANSITIVE LOCATION (#6 place in which something is situated or takes place ), WEATHER/METEOROLOGICAL VERBS (#75, #76, #77,#78, #79, #80, #104) , TRANSITIVE  with POSSESSOR (#10), TRANSITIVE REASON OR PURPOSE (#103), TRANSITIVE BENEFICIARY(#3 the entity for whose benefit the action was performed).  Beneficiary is a subtype of Reason or Purpose. Sample Verb below in Perfective Aspect Realis Mood.

    Genitive : P/P (PATIENT or POSSESSOR) Nominative Oblique
Tagalog v<um>erb nang P/P (def. & indef.) ang ACTOR (def. & indef.) sa RECIPIENT , LOCATION
para sa
Bikol nag>verb nin P/P (indef.)
kan P/P (def.)
an ACTOR (def. & indef.)
para sa
Waray v<inm>erb hin P/P (indef.)
han P/P (def.)
an ACTOR (def.)
in ACTOR (indef.)
para han
Sebuano ni>verb sa P/P (def.)
ug POSSESSOR (#3) (indef.)
ang ACTOR (def. & indef.) sa RECIPIENT , LOCATION
Hiligaynon nag>verb sang P/P (def.)
sing P/P (indef.)
ang ACTOR (def. & indef.) sa RECIPIENT , LOCATION
Tausug v<im>erb (#2) – P/P
sin P/P
Kapampangan me>verb ya -ng/ning P/P (indef.?)
(yang P/P def.? )
bangkanita REASON
Ilokano v<imm>erb (#3) ti P/P (def. & indef.) dyay ACTOR
kadaydyay na RECIPIENT
idyay/iti LOCATION
tapnu REASON
para kadaydyay BENEFICIARY
Ibanag v<imin>erb (#3) tu PATIENT
tapenu REASON
para taC
Pangasinan v<imm>erb (#1) (na) P/P (#3)
na P/P
may ACTOR (#6)
tapyan REASON
Filipino v<inum>erb(?) or
nang P/P (def.)
ning P/P (indef.)
(like Romblomanon)
nu (distal, like Southern Bikol)
— –Nominative
sang ACTOR (def.) 
(like Bontok, Kankanay)
sing ACTOR (indef.)

su (distal, like Bikol)
ang ACTOR (def.) 
ing ACTOR (indef.)

(like Waray)
kang RECIPIENT (def.)
king RECIPIENT (indef.)
para kang/king BENEFICIARY
(like Bikol/Kapampangan)

ta REASON (like Bikol)
su TIME (past)
nu TIME (future)

Notes on Phrase Markers used:

  1. The genitive marker indicates that both the verb and the noun can have arguments, it shows as argument of either the noun or the verb. 
  2. Phrase markers for the beneficiary seems to be “para” + LOCATION marker. I believe “para” is a borrowing from Spanish. Waray beneficiary phrase marker is different than the others as it uses “para han” (“para” + PATIENT) instead of the expected “para ha” (“para” + LOCATION ) which all the others use. It’s like Tagalog using “para nang” instead of “para sa” in the following sample sentence: “Bumili ng bulaklak ang binata para *nang (sa) dalaga. ”
  3. Is “sa” originally from “san”? I got into this thinking because of the Cebuano data and the Waray data. In Cebuano, “sa” + PATIENT is counterpart to Hiligaynon “sang” + PATIENT. In Waray, the “para han” is maybe a para + RECIPIENT/LOCATION after all, so its possible that the original LOCATION common marker is “sang”, applied as well with RECIPIENT, then changed to become a PATIENT marker in the Bisayan languages, with Cebuano dropping the ending. Dropping of ending frequently happens in Waray, for example akon > ak (my/mine), lang> la (only). In Cebuano itself, the prefix gin> has become gi>. I would like to think the “sa” is a prefix in personal pronouns and “sang” is the marker particle.
  4. Tausug “in”, Kapampangan “ying/ing” and Ibanag “i” (y) seems to be cognate with Old Bikol/Waray “in” which is common indefinite nominative marker. Pangasinan “su/say” seems to be related to Bikol “su/si” for those that have previously been mentioned or specified in the conversation, (I termed distal above or common definite nominative distal marker), unlike “ang” which is proximal. Ilokano “dyay” I don’t know how to relate to other markers.
  5. Bikol “nin” , Waray “hin”, Sebuano “ug” are indefinite genitive markers. Sebuano “ug” might be related to Subanen “og” or “nog”. A similar process as what happened in Maranaw could have happened where Genitive form “nu/ni” has become “u/i”, so prior form nog > og in Sebuano. It seems that the right form in Sebuano is “og”, not “ug”.  Although Hiligaynon has “sang” vs “sing” distinction, it has fallen into disuse and encountered mostly in formal, traditional or conservative translations of the Bible. I am not sure of  Ibanag “tu” and Kapampangan “yang” if definite or indefinite.  
  6. Bikol “kan” “usually .. refer to something that was already mentioned” as the counterpart of “si/su”, thus can be used instead of “nin si/su”.
  7. For POSSESSOR marker, Kapampangan used “na ning”, and Ibanag used “na”, which is different from the PATIENT marker.
  8. Tausug and Pangasinan did not use any PATIENT marker.  Tausug use of “sin” for POSSESSOR may be a remnant of the old use of “sin” for PATIENT. In other examples, this language does not use a marker for its genitive. Same with Pangasinan which used “na” in the POSSESSOR.
  9. Ibanag form for nominative marker “i” (y), seems to have a coda of the initial consonant of the following word, like the other markers.
  10. Pangasinan has a different marker “may” for nominative (#6), and Kapampangan has “ya yin”.
  11. Phrase marker for Location and Recipient seemed to have merged, from the original Location marker.

Middle Voice

This is just a description of the <um> affix to differentiate it with mag>, ma> and mang>. Here I follow Maldonado’s conception of middle in his work, where the middle voice “tends to occur can be characterized in more general terms: motion (translational, non-translational and change in body posture), change of mental state (cognition, emotive speech and emotion), spontaneous events and self-directed actions (direct and indirect body care). Of all these categories the one that fluctuates between middle and reflexive marking across languages is self directed actions. Sample verbs in Tagalog, with definition from Nagaya:

  1. Translational Motion – “actions involving motion of an animate entity under its own power through space”, a motion of an agent. Ex:  umakyat (climb up), umalis (go away, leave), pumunta (went), tumakas (run away).
  2. Nontranslational motion – “those which denote actions of motor manipulation of the body”, an agent
    makes such a motion. Ex: umikot (turn oneself), umunat (stretch one’s body) [mag-unat is reflexive], lumiko (turn), yumuko (bow).
  3. Change in Body Posture –  forms of verbs of change in body posture indicate a situation where an agent changes its own body posture. Ex: lumuhod (kneel), umupo (sit down), Kumandong (sit on the lap)
  4. Change of State (inchoative) – an agent undergoes a change of state within its personal sphere, and the agent itself is affected by the process. Ex: tumigil (stop), sumara (close), lumaki (became big).
  5. Cognition Middle – umisip () (vs. mag-isip)
  6. Emotive speech acts –dumaing(whine), tumangis (lament)
  7. Spontaneous Events –  tumigil (stop oneself), umusok (produce smoke),
  8. Meteorological events – bumagyo, umulan, humangin, etc.
  9. Indirect Middle – no example.
  10. Grooming or bodily care – magdamit (get dressed), maghilamos (wash face), nagbihis (dressed), nagpulbo (put powder), nagsombrero (put on a hat)
  11. Emotion Middle – nagalit (got angry), natakot (got a fright), nabigla (got a shock)

Following Maldonado said, Grooming or bodily care is not using <um> but mag> instead, showing presence of control over the action, and is reflexive. Emotion middle as well uses ma> for those that are externally caused showing lack of control.

His Yucatec Maya observations seem to hold to these languages as well: “In reflexive constructions the subject acts volitionally and with control on the self inducing some change. In contrast, middles highlight the affectedness undergone by the subject as a consequence of some change which s/he undergoes. In the middle construction the change-of-state is not volitionally controlled by the subject. Thus the reflexive construction in (3b) designates the subject’s act of using some medicine to get better, while in (3c) the subject’s health simply improves with no particular effort.”  In Tagalog the verbs for that would be nagpagaling /pinagaling (transitive/reflexive cure) vs. gumaling (middle cure).

“An outstanding feature of middles in YM is that they always depict an absolute event, one in which energy is not profiled. The event is thus seen as neutral or spontaneous. In (4) the decrease in energy is observed as we go from the transitive (4a), to the reflexive in (4b) where the cat stretches out, to the middle construction in (4c) where the clothes simply sag.” In Tagalog that would be inunat (transitive) vs. mag-unat (reflexive) vs. umunat (middle).

What is interesting about the middle system in YM is that it shows notable irregularities from general tendencies of middle marking. First, grooming actions take reflexive not middle marking as is evident from the ungrammaticality of the middle construction in (5b).” . Tagalog equivalent would be maghugas (reflexive) vs. *humugas (middle) for “wash oneself”.

Second, in cases of motion, again it is the reflexive, not the middle, the construction employed to signal that the subject controls his movements. In the first story (6a) the subject’s change of position is a routine action as expressed by the intransitive verb. In the second story (6b), the reflexive encodes a fast action that the main character of the story does to avoid being seen by the fox. The middle construction is precluded from both situations. “ Tagalog equivalent would be lumuhod (middle) vs. nagluhod (transitive/reflexive).

Third, in cases of change of state again the reflexive contrasts with the intransitive form. In the reflexive construction (7b) the subject makes himself sick in order to avoid going to work. The absolute intransitive is a spontaneous uncontrolled event.” This can’t be applied in Tagalog since both uses mag> : magkasakit vs. magsakitsakitan. 

“Moreover, in cases where both the reflexive and the middle construction can be used, the reflexive implies a reading of unexpectedness as in (8a). Crucially, the middle construction in (8b) would be chosen to depict natural occurrences like a firecracker bursting in the town festivities.” Tagalog equivalents would be nagputok (reflexive) vs pumutok (middle).

The YM voice system is quite sensitive to the degree of control imposed by the subject. The examples so far offered suggest that the contrast between reflexives and middles precisely resides in the notion of control. While both develop from transitive roots, the reflexive is a case where the subject maintains control of his self-directed actions. In contrast, the middle develops absolute events with no subject control. In fact the middle aligns with the nuclear properties of intransitive verbs and contrast with reflexives in exactly the same manner. …….In fact the middle develops from transitive to contrast drastically with the reflexive construction. In YM the middle is a derived construction independent from the reflexive.”  Tagalog et al’s middle is not derived from the transitive, as Maldonado’s other statement applies: “In a variety of languages the middle is a basic, non-derivative form and it constitutes the basis to derive either reflexive or transitive constructions.”. This seems to hold in Philippine languages since it is reconstructed that mag> and ma> is derived from <um>.

In Nagaya’s work, she used the term middle with 3 meanings:  middle (miiddle a), reflexive (middle b and middle c) [see illustration]. She said: “There is more than one affix for Actor Focus, -um- and mag- being the most productive. AF verb forms express non-active voice categories, representing the antipassive voice with extroverted verbs and the middle voice with introverted verbs, respectively.” Here she showed a verb form using <um> but with antipassive use: “Pumatay si Juan ng aso.” since the action is externally directed. “Bumili” seems to be of this type as well.

The concept of introverted and extroverted verbs is useful in mag> and ma> for determining if they are reflexive or reciprocal/other transitive. “the distinction between “introverted verbs” and “extroverted verbs”. Introverted verbs “refer to actions which one generally performs upon one’s self” (ibid.:803); extroverted verbs “describe actions which the subject usually performs toward others” (ibid.:803). This contrast between extroverted and introverted verbs, we argue, plays an important role in the Tagalog middle voice as well. On the one hand, AF verb forms of extroverted verbs cannot express middle situations but only antipassive situations as in (57) and (58). Indeed, all the examples of antipassive constructions we have discussed are AF clauses with extroverted verbs: kumain ‘eat’ (15), pumatay ‘kill’ (16), uminom ‘drink’ (19), and mangagat ‘bite’ (20). On the other hand, introverted verbs can realize middle situations, but not antipassive situations, with AF verb forms like (59) and (60). In fact, the AF verb forms we have looked at in Section 4 are those with introverted verbs such as verbs of grooming and of change in body posture. ”  Mag>/ma> with introverted verbs are reflexive. Mag>/ma> with extroverted verbs either are transitive reciprocal or plain active.

Nagaya further said that “To express a middle meaning with extroverted verbs, which is an unpredictable situation, it is necessary to employ the sarili reflexive construction. The situations the sarili reflexive construction realizes are middle situations in the sense that the development of an action is confined within the agent’s personal sphere and the agent him- or herself is affected (cf. English reflexives in 12). But they are “unusual” middle situations, where extroverted verbs have a middle meaning contrary to expectations, being distinguished from “usual” middle situations expressed by AF clauses like (59) and (60).”. I think this is a reflexive in NAF focus.

She said that mag> is a middle voice affix: “Certain verbs of grooming (Section 4) can have a specific body part as a patient. For example, the AF verb form magsabon ‘wash (with soap)’ means that the agent washes her own whole body as in (25a). But it can also be used to mean that the agent washes her specific body part kamay ‘hand’ as in (25b). In this case, the body part has to be interpreted to belong to the agent; the interpretation that the agent washed someone else’s body part is not possible. Note that the body part patient here is interpreted as part of the agent and within her personal sphere, and is different from a “distinct patient” involved in active situations.” Following Maldonado, mag> is actually not a middle affix but reflexive in her example.

She further said : “Another example of transitive AF middle clauses is a “causative middle”. Let us compare (27a) and (27b). Both of them mean that the speaker was kissed by Kathleen, but are different in terms of who benefits from the action. The AF causative middle clause in (27a) [Nagpahalik ako kay Kathleen] denotes that the action of kissing was carried out for the benefit of the speaker/agent.” This actually looks like a “causative reflexive” to me, as also noted by Nagaya in Lyons’ work. Other examples in here are: nagpagupit (had a haircut), nagpaluto (had cooked for oneself), nagpasama (had accompanied).

In Nagaya’s work, mag> also has a naturally reciprocal meaning for certain verbs (where multiple participants act on each other, are also realized by an AF verb form) as well. Ex: Nag-away (quarrelled with each other), nag-usap (talked with each other), naghiwalay (separate), and nagtalik (copulate).

So I have recasted Nagaya’s table here as :

Verb Type Affix Actor Focus
Introverted Verbs <um> Middle Voice
Extroverted Verbs <um> ??
Introverted Verbs mag> Reflexive Voice
Extroverted Verbs magpa> Causative Reflexive
Extroverted Verbs mag><an Reciprocal Voice
Extroverted Verbs mag> Active Voice
Extroverted Verbs magpa> Causative Active

Although Nagaya classified of one  <um> use as antipassive, this might be difficult, just as it is in Tongan: “For one thing, as mentioned earlier in this chapter, morphological evidence argues against the antipassive analysis: it is not likely that a middle verb is derived from a transitive verb. Rather, it seems that the transitive verb is derived from a middle verb by affixing -‘i. This morphological fact argues against the antipassive analysis of the Tongan middle.” Aldridge offers reasons why this is an antipassive, although <um> is not derived from a transitive verb.

Malodok na agi-agi ni Trabyata – Trobador

Another corrido is Malodok na agi-agi ni Trabyata – Trobador. What I found unusual about this is the large amount of Spanish expressions. Also, the printing quality is not high as I can’t understand a lot of printed words, so I indicated them with “???” as an example.

As before, the publication is covered by the warranty and purpose as discussed in here.


sa Kahadean nin Valencia

Cecilio Publications
City of Naga


sa Cahadean nin Valencia

Cecilio Publications
City of Naga



Duman sa syudad dagaɥ nin España
igwaŋ saroŋ konde may akiŋ daraga
maŋa kabiniɥan sabihon pa baga
ŋaran kun apodon iyo si Trabyata

Duman sa ciudad daga nin España
iguang sarong conde may aking daraga
magña cabinian sabihon pa baga
gñaran cun apodon iyo si Trabiata


An daragaŋ ini na sakoŋ sinaysay
May tipan sa Dyos ki Virgen na mahal
an pagkadaraga haboŋ pamanchahan
ta maɥwot an laŋit na saɥiyaŋ kamtan

An daragang ini na sacong sinaysay
May tipan sa Dios qui Virgen na mahal
an pagca daraga habong pamanchahan
ta mauot an lagñit na saiyang camtan


Daɥiŋ ibaŋ gibo sa hapon sa aga
firme an pamibiɥ ki Virgin Maria
ta an nasa isip makamtan makuɥa
an ogma sa laŋit na gloria eterna

Daing ibang guibo sa hapon sa aga
firme an pamibi ki Virgin Maria
ta an nasa isip macamtan macua
an ogma sa lagñit na gloria eterna


Sa kahalawigan nin maŋa panahon
nagɥerok sa ogma na labiŋ moninoŋ
may saroŋ soltero ŋaran si Trobador
nabihag an pusoɥ de tan grande amor

Sa cahalauigan nin magña panahon
nag-eroc sa ogma na labing moninong
may sarong soltero gñaran si Trobador
nabihag an puso de tan grande amor


Labiŋ pagkamoɥot daɥi napogolan
ipinagpahayag kun igwa nin lugar
mabiniŋ Trabyata daɥi nakadejar
kaɥiniŋ ki Trobador na kapahayagan

Labing pagkamoot dai napogolan
ipinagpahayag cun igua nin lugar
mabining Trabiata dai nacadejar
caining ki Trobador na capahayagan


Pagkaminoɥotan kaɥinihoŋ duwa
talanhok sa pusoɥ labiŋ pagkaɥogma
na kun si Trobador masuhay sa mata
nariribok tolos isip ni Trabyata

Pagcaminootan cainihong dua
talanhoc sa puso labing pagcaogma
na cun si Trobador masuhay sa mata
naririboc tolos isip ni Trabiata


Boɥot ni Trabyata di boɥot masuhay
ini si Trobador na raŋa sa daghan
na orog naŋ gayo Trobador maglakaw
daɥi mahihimo Trabyata komakan

Boot ni Trabiata di boot masuhay
ini si Trobador na ragña sa daghan
na orog nang gayo Trobador maglacao
dai mahihimo Trabiata comacan


Olay ni Trobador kaɥini ni Trabyata
raŋa nin pusoɥ ko kordyal ka sa dusa
anoŋ sa boɥot mo sakoɥ mo sabiha
kon an sakoŋ amor ratakan mo sana

Olay ni Trobador caini ni Trabiata
ragña nin puso co cordial ca sa dusa
anong sa boot mo saco mo sabiha
con an sacong amor ratacan mo sana


Simbag ni Trobador bakoɥ sa pagratak
Trabyata saɥimo iniŋ pagpahayag
kundiɥ paɥanhon ko iniŋ pagkamugtak
Saroɥ akoŋ pobre na makaheherak

Simbag ni Trobador baco sa pagratac
Trabiata saimo ining pagpahayag
cundi paanhon co ining pagcamugtac
Saro acong pobre na macaheherac


Tipan ko sa Dyos pagkamoɥotan ta
di ka boɥot lamaŋ maparaɥ sa mata
kondiɥ an sa sakoɥ saɥimo Trabyata
taɥwi akoŋ lugar maghanap nin kwarta

Tipan co sa Dios pagcamootan ta
di ca boot lamang mapara sa mata
condi an sa saco saimo Trabiata
tawi acong lugar maghanap nin cuarta


Ta sa isip ko ako maglalakaw
Paduduman ako dagaɥ nin Mindanaw
an kadaɥihan ko hahanapon duman
ŋaniŋ kitaŋ duwa Trabyata makasal

Ta sa isip co aco maglalacao
Paduduman aco daga nin Mindanao
an cadaihan co hahanapon duman
gñaning kitang dua Trabiata macasal


Ta kun digdi sana ako sa España
daɥi makakuɥa kitaŋ gayagaya
asin ta kun siriŋ di ta makukuɥa
iniŋ matrimonyo na pigɥiɥimporta

Ta cun digdi sana aco sa España
dai macacua kitang gayagaya
asin ta cun siring di ta macucua
ining matrimonio na pig-iimporta 


Simbag ni Trabyata makolog sa boɥot
an siɥmoŋ paghaleɥ sakoɥ pagtalikod
dukhaŋ kagadanan iniŋ maɥaɥabot
kon magpipirit ka na homaleŋ sayod

Simbag ni Trabiata macolog sa boot
an simong paghale saco pagtalicod
duchang cagadanan ining ma-aabot
con magpipirit ca na homaleng sayod


Dukhaŋ kagadanan Trobador laɥoma
tan gran tristeza sakoɥ magdadara
ay pagkamoɥot ko nabasaŋ ka sana
pagkabyo ko na daɥiŋ halaga

Duchang cagadanan Trobador laoma
tan gran tristeza saco magdadara
ay pagcamoot co nabasang ca sana
pagcabyo co na daing halaga


Ay maŋa luhaɥ ko sa mata nabolos
na di nagtotonoŋ siriŋ sa borabod
ini na an oras na ipagtitiɥos
ay kagadanan ko gayod an maɥabot

Ay magña luha co sa mata nabolos
na di nagtotonong siring sa borabod
ini na an oras na ipagtitios
ay cagadanan co gayod an maabot


Iniŋ pagkataram kaɥini ni Trabyata
sa raɥot nin boɥot nawaɥran ginhawa
maluhay paŋ olay Trobador "so oga"(?)
an sakuyaŋ baŋkay sa lolobŋan koɥa

Ining pagcataram caini ni Trabiata
sa raot nin boot nauaran guinhaua
maluhay pang olay Trobador "so oga"(?)
an sacuyang bangcay sa lolobagñan coa


Tolos ni Trobador saɥiyaŋ sinakolo
kaduŋan an luhaŋ nagtoroɥ na gayo
ay Trabyata olay ano an salaɥ ko
ta digdi sa mundoɥ ay babayaɥan mo

Tolos ni Trobador saiyang sinacolo
cadugñan an luhang nagtoro na gayo
ay Trabiata olay ano an sala co
ta digdi sa mundo ay babayaan mo


ŋonyan siɥisay pa daw sakoŋ aaraŋon
sukat kikiliŋan asin gigiɥawon
iniŋ sakoŋ boɥot nagboboroŋboroŋ
ta daɥi naŋ iba akoŋ piglalaɥom

Gñonian siisay pa dao sacong aaragñon
sucat quiquiligñan asin guiguiauon
ining sacong boot nagboborongborong
ta dai nang iba acong piglalaom


Dyataɥ sayaŋ sana maŋa kaɥogmahan
taɥo mo sa sakoɥ na kapadaŋatan
pinaglalaɥom ko an saɥimoŋ buhay
palan madadaɥi sa madaleɥ lamaŋ

Diata sayang sana magña caogmahan
tao mo sa saco na capadagñatan
pinaglalaom co an saimong buhay
palan madadai sa madale lamang


Orog an poɥŋaw ko na kun minasaboŋ
an huriŋ mapaɥit sa sakoɥ mo togon
na an siɥmoŋ baŋkay sakuyaŋ koɥahon
asin sa lolobŋan duman ka sosogon

Orog an pogñao co na cun minasabong
an huring mapait sa saco mo togon
na an simong bangcay sacuyang coahon
asin sa lolobgñan duman ca sosogon


Sa paŋayoɥŋayoɥ nin pusoŋ malodok
boɥot naɥoliɥan baga sa natorog
Trabyata nagɥaram malumbay na tiŋog
patawara ako oh sakoŋ paɥorog

Sa pagñayogñayo nin pusong malodoc
boot naolian baga sa natorog
Trabiata nag aram malumbay na tigñog
patauara aco oh sacong paorog


kun bakoŋ por dahel Trobador saɥimo
daɥi ko kakamtan an padicimiento
na minsan makulog sa pusoɥ boɥot ko
sa siɥmoŋ paghaleɥ sakit tiɥoson ko

Cun bacong por dahel Trobador saimo
dai co cacamtan an padicimiento
na minsan maculog sa puso boot co
sa simong paghale sakit tioson co


kundiɥ an hagad ko daɥi mo pagliŋawan
tratus condiciones avenenciaŋ marhay
siŋsiŋ ko Trobador moroɥ mo soɥlotan
taŋaniŋ daɥi mo ako maliŋawan

Cundi an hagad co dai mo pagligñauan
tratus condiciones avenenciang marhay
singsing co Trobador moro mo solotan
tagñaning dai mo aco maligñauan


Trobador siriŋ man iyan na siŋsiŋ mo
sakoɥ mo iwalat ta esponsales ko
pagtipan kan duwa pabayaɥan ko
an maŋa naŋyari sabihon koŋ gayo

Trobador siring man iyan na singsing mo
saco mo iualat ta esponsales co
pag tipan can dua pabayaan co
an magña nangyari sabihon cong gayo


Di ano an siŋsiŋ nyaɥon na Trabyata
asin an siŋsiŋ mo iyo ko an dara
an sakoŋ talaɥan iyoŋ giromdoma
ikapitoŋ taɥon iyoŋ pagpuliɥ na.

Di ano an singsing niaon na Trabiata
asin an singsing mo iyo co an dara
an sacong talaan iyong guiromdoma
icapitong taon iyong pagpuli na.


Ay que amargora Trobador no puede
vivir no podemos hasta ese tiempo
antes arrancame porque la desmayo
esta triste vida que padecer tanto

Ay que amargora Trobador no puede
vivir no podemos hasta ese tiempo
antes arrancame porque la desmayo
esta triste vida que padecer tanto


Marhay pa Trobador an tawoŋ gadan na
bilog an pagɥisip honaɥhonaɥ niya
an siriŋ sa sakoɥ guranoɥ daw baga
an sakit sa pusoɥ por tu ausencia

Marhay pa Trobador an tauong gadan na
bilog an pag-isip honahona nia
an siring sa saco gurano dao baga
an sakit sa puso por tu ausencia


Marhay ka na sana ta nasa paglakaw
bilog an pagɥisip sa ogma giraray
an siriŋ sa Sakoɥ ay makaɥoɥogay
garoŋ nasa prision iniŋ kamugtakan

Marhay ca na sana ta nasa paglacao
bilog an pag-isip sa ogma guiraray
an siring sa Saco ay maca oogay
garong nasa prision ining camugtacan


Ay di mi corazon ay amor ardiente
anhon paŋ buhayon ako kaniŋ orbe
poɥon pagtiɥos ko kan horasaŋ labi
garoŋ di matiɥos nin ibaŋ babahe

Ay di mi corazon ay amor ardiente
anhon pang buhayon aco caning orbe
poon pagtios co can horasang labi
garong di matios nin ibang babae


kahalimbawa ko saɥimoŋ hinolog
hararom na dagat mahiwas na lawod
kiɥisay makiliŋ kiɥisay maɥapod
huliŋ daɥi ka na ogmaŋ nagheherot

Cahalimbawa co saimong hinolog
hararom na dagat mahiuas na lauod
ki-isay makiling ki-isay maapod
huling dai ca na ogmang nagheherot


Olay ni Trobador basta na Trabyata
an paghinanakit asin pagɥagagha
kun ako mayaman seguro daɥi na
tomalikod siɥmo na bayaɥan taka

Olay ni Trobador basta na Trabiata
an paghinanakit asin pag-agagha
cun aco mayaman seguro dai na
tomalicod simo na bayaan taca


Dati koŋ promisa sa Dyos na mahal
honra mo Trabyata sakoŋ dadamayan
nin fundada causa ako magagadan
sobre sa saɥimo oh sakuyaŋ tiŋraw

Dati cong promisa sa Dios na mahal
honra mo Trabiata sacong dadamayan
nin fundada causa aco magagadan
sobre sa saimo oh sacuyang tingrao


kundi paɥanhon ko iniŋ kamugtakan
saro akoŋ pobre na makaɥoɥogay
di ta mabibilog di ta maconsagrar
iniŋ pagkamoɥot kun daɥi maglakaw

Cundi paanhon co ining camugtacan
saro acong pobre na maca-oogay
di ta mabibilog di ta maconsagrar
ining pagcamoot cun dai maglacao


kon iyoŋ isip mo olay ni Trabyata
adyos na Trobador no me olvides ya
komo an boɥot ko saɥimo iyo na
condiciones nyato hari man paraɥa

Con iyong isip mo olay ni Trabiata
adios na Trobador no me olvides ya
como an boot co saimo iyo na
condiciones niato hari man paraa


Dagos si Trobador sa bapor nagsakay
destino nin Pusoɥ negosyo sa Lanaw
ta an nasa isip maghahanap duman
nin sukat magasto ta magpapakasal

Dagos si Trobador sa bapor nagsacay
destino nin Puso negocio sa Lanao
ta an nasa isip maghahanap duman
nin sucat magasto ta magpapacasal


Ikatuloŋ taɥon pagkasuhay ninda
makuriŋ lipoɥŋaw kaniŋ si Trabyata
olay na agraŋay Trobador haɥen ka
ta di mo ako ginigiromdom na

Icatulong taon pagcasuhay ninda
macuring lipogñao caning si Trabiata
olay na agragñay Trobador haen ca
ta di mo aco guiniguiromdom na


Marhay na Trobador siɥmoŋ pagkaliŋaw
ano man totoɥo sakoɥ pagromdoman
kanogon pa lamaŋ maŋa pagɥestimar
na daɥi pigromdom sayaŋ basaŋ lamaŋ

Marhay na Trobador simong pagcalignao
ano man totoo saco pagromdoman
canogon pa lamang magña pag-estimar
na dai pigromdom sayang basang lamang


Ikaɥapat na taɥon asu omabot na
terminoŋ oras talaɥan saɥiya
lipoɥŋaw sa boɥot bilaŋ paraɥ na
kadtoŋ kahaloyan na daɥiŋ noticia

Icaapat na taon asu omabot na
terminong oras talaan saiya
lipogñao sa boot bilang para na
cadtong cahaloyan na daing noticia


Huli ta apat naŋ taɥon pagkasuhay
na daɥiŋ noticia kun siya pa buhay
bilaŋ sa paraɥ na an saɥiyaŋ lipoɥŋaw
an laɥom gadan na an raŋa nin daghan

Huli ta apat nang taon pagcasuhay
na daing noticia cun sia pa buhay
bilang sa para na an saiyang lipogñao
an laom gadan na an ragña nin daghan


Ipagpadigdi ko doctor na si Norma
ki Konde Tatecio nagpresentar siya
pagɥagom an tuyo kaɥini ki Trabyata
halawig naŋ tiempo an pagkamoɥot niya

Ipagpadigdi co doctor na si Norma
ki Conde Tatecio nagpresentar sia
pag-agom an tuyo caini ki Trabiata
halauig nang tiempo an pagcamoot nia


Pagmaɥwot na ini ta husto sa daghan
an Konde Tatecio di nagsayuma man
huli ta an isip idtoŋ karahayan
siɥisay daw baga an makakasuhay

Pagmauot na ini ta husto sa daghan
an conde Tatecio di nagsayuma man
huli ta an isip idtong carahayan
siisay dao baga an macacasuhay


An honraŋ maraɥot ini ibanhan ta
ini paŋ sa marhay an di kuyogon ta
Trabyata kinasal daɥiŋ deferencia
huli ta sa pagkuyog sa saɥiyaŋ amaɥ

An honrang maraot ini ibanhan ta
ini pang sa marhay an di cuyogon ta
Trabiata kinasal daing deferencia
huli ta sa pagcuyog sa saiyang ama


Trabyata nagkuyog sa amaŋ kaboɥtan
pero an boɥot niya makolog giraray
huli ki Trobador kun nagigiromdoman
bagaŋ linalamos nin labiŋ lipoɥŋaw

Trabiata nagcuyog sa amang cabotan
pero an boot nia macolog guiraray
huli ki Trobador cun naguiguiromdoman
bagang linalamos nin labing lipogñao


Es el amor grande bakoɥ paŋ superior
daɥog nin amores na may konsagracion
Trabyata kasal na iyo sanaŋ romdom
idtoŋ primer amor gikan ki Trobador

Es el amor grande baco pang superior
daog nin amores na may consagracion
Tabiata casal na iyo sanang romdom
idtong primer amor guican ki Trobador


Pagkasaroŋ boɥot kaɥinihoŋ duwa
toninoŋ na orog nagdanay na sinda
alagad an ogma kaɥiniŋ si Trabyata
firme an pagromdom kaɥidtoŋ pagkasalaɥ

Pagcasarong boot cainihong dua
toninong na orog nagdanay na sinda
alagad an ogma caining si Trabiata
firme an pagromdom caidtong pagcasala


Ikatoloŋ taɥon ninda pagkakasal
Trabyata naŋakiɥ sa Dyos na kaboɥtan
sa pagkapaŋakiɥ Trabyata nagadan
binaweɥ nin Dyos an haram na buhay

Icatolong taon ninda pagcacasal
Trabiata nagñaki sa Dios na cabotan
sa pagcapagñaki Trabiata nagadan
binawe nin Dios an haram na buhay


Dukhaŋ kagadanan an kinamtan niya
el pueblo muy triste nagluto an banwaɥ
daɥi nin pagɥontok bilog na magɥaga
nin kapaplacebo kaɥidtoŋ kampana

Dukhang cagadanan an kinamtan nia
el pueblo muy triste nagluto an banua
dai nin pag-ontok bilog na mag-aga
nin capaplacebo caidtong campana


Daɥan taŋ talastas maŋa mayayaman
Cuando se entierra pinagɥoɥonrasan
an bilog na banwaɥ labiŋ kamondoɥan
an gabos na haroŋ kulgaduraŋ anan

Daan tang talastas mga mayayaman
cuando se entierra pinag oonrasan
an bilog na banua labing camondoan
an gabos na harong culgadurang anan


Iba pa kaɥini sabiŋ kulgadora
bardorillaŋ itom naŋagborontak pa
mga navezantes nagŋalas nagtaka
kadtoŋ kamugtakan ta may luminaria

Iba pa caini sabing culgadora
bardorillang itom nagñagborontak pa
mga navezantes naggñalas nagtaka
cadtong camugtakan ta may luminaria


Bayaɥan ta ŋoɥna nasabiŋ gadan
puesto na an karro an kahon siriŋ man
handa na tumba ta iɥaɥatubaŋ
an gadan sa misa kayan pagloboŋan

Bayaan ta gñona nasabing gadan
puestO na an carro an cajon siring man
handa na tumba ta iaatubang
an gadan sa misa cayan paglobogñan


May kagduwaŋ padeɥ maŋa asistido
kaɥiniŋ pagdapit na solemneŋ gayo
duwaŋ banda naman an maŋa musiko
na nagɥasiste kaɥiniŋ entierro

May cagduang pade mga asistido
caining pagdapit na solemneng gayo
duang banda naman an mga musico
na nag-asiste caining entierro


Sakoŋ pagbalikan buhay na maɥogma
kaɥini ki Trobador kan makapuesto siya
mga kasaŋkapan gubiŋ pa an "dara"(?)
sa bapor sumakay dagos sa España

Sacong pagbalikan buhay na maogma
caini ki Trobador can makapuesto sia
mga casangcapan gubing pa an "dara"(?)
sa vapor sumakay dagos sa España


Saabihon pa baga maŋa kaɥogmahan
na kan harani na kaɥidtoŋ banwaɥan
daɥi na sa fundo kargamentoŋ anan
puro sa kubierta nin bapor na andam

Saabihon pa baga magña caogmahan
na can harani na caidtong banuaan
dai na sa fundo cargamentong anan
puro sa cubierta nin bapor na andam


Sa ciudad pagdatoŋ nagŋalas nagtaka
pusoɥ ni Trobador kaɥidtoŋ luminaria
sinaksak an daghan baga nin espada
lipoɥŋaw na labi an kinamtan niya

Sa ciudad Pagdatong naggñalas nagtaca
puso ni Trobador caidtong luminaria
sinacsac an daghan baga nin espada
lipogñao na labi an kinamtan nia


Ay maŋa laŋit sakoɥ mo pasabŋan
pagmondoɥ koŋ ini kun anoŋ dahelan
kamoŋ Santo Santa nin koro celestial
soroga man nindo kaɥiniŋ kasakitan

Ay magña lagñit saco mo pasabgñan
pagmondo cong ini cun anong dahelan
camong Santo Santa nin Coro celestial
soroga man nindo Caining casakitan


Napapaɥno ini lugar sa pagɥogma
nakamtan pagpuliɥ digdi sa España
lipoɥŋaw na labi an sakoŋ nakuɥa
pasabŋan sa sakoɥ maŋa Santo Santa

Napapano ini lugar sa pag ogma
nacamtan pagpuli digdi sa España
lipogñao na labi an sacong nacua
pasabgñan sa saco magña Santo Santa


Balaɥog nin Dyos ay que gran espanto
milagroŋ dakulaɥ sa tawo ginibo
garo saroŋ tiŋog an olay iniho
Trobador depende de su triste sueño

Balaog nin Dios ay que gran espanto
milagrong dacula sa tauo guinibo
garo sarong tigñog an olay iniho
Trobador depende de su triste sueño


Ogma niya pusoɥ mo saɥimoŋ hanapa
Trabyata nagadan ahora se entierra
kun daɥi nin suerte di mo aɥabton na
baŋkay nin ogma moŋ pinaghihiŋoha

Ogma nia puso mo saimong hanapa
Trabiata nagadan ahora se entierra
cun dai nin suerte di mo aabton na
bangcay nin ogma mong pinaghihigñoa


Pagdoɥoŋ nin bapor Trobador nagadan
medio desmayado sa labiŋ lipoɥŋaw
pagpiroŋ nin mata ini an tinaram
Trabyata mejor pa primero enterar

Pagdoong nin bapor Trobador nagadan
medio desmayado sa labing lipogñao
pagpirong nin mata ini an tinaram
Trabiata mejor pa primero enterar


Ano pa an sirbe ta ika gadan na
raŋa nin pusoɥ ko ta minamahal ka
ay maŋa laŋit maŋa Santo Santa
saŋkohi man nindo hawak koŋ maluya

Ano pa an sirve ta ica gadan na
ragña nin puso co ta minamahal ca
ay magña lagñit magña Santo Santa
sangcohi man nindo hawac cong maluya


Tibaɥad abton ko an pinagmamaɥwot
ako maɥasiste kaɥiyan entierros
bapor dominoɥoŋ tristes pasajeros
enot pinasalta idtoŋ kargamentos

Tibaad abton co an pinagmamauot
aco ma asiste caiyan entierros
vapor dominoong tristes pasajeros
enot pinasalta idtong cargamentos


Pagɥabot sa gilid kargamentos niya
mustrador nin inchic duman pigdiskarga
tolos na naghaleɥ siya nin bestida
naggubiŋ nin loto ta magdadapit na

Pag-abot sa guilid cargamentos nia
mustrador nin inchic duman pig discarga
tolos na naghale sia nin vestida
nag gubing nin loto ta magdadapit na


Tara pakasaŋleɥ tomogtog an handras
padres na kadaklan kon sus dalmaticas
gadan kukuɥahon huliŋ ibobugtac
duman kadtoŋ tumba adornadoŋ hayag

Tara pacasangle tomogtog an handras
padres na cadaclan con sus dalmaticas
gadan cucuaon huling ibobugtac
duman cadtong tumba adornadong hayag


Dagos man somonod iniŋ pasajero
duman sa kadaklan antabay sa karro
musika siriŋ man duman asistido
togtog na malumbay mamondoŋ totoɥo

Dagos man somonod ining pasajero
duman sa cadaclan antabay sa carro
musica siring man duman asistido
togtog na malumbay mamondong totoo


Gabos na nagdapit may luhaɥ sa mata
sa malipoɥŋawon togtog nin musika
ini si Trobador sabihon ko ŋoɥna
sa likod nin karro may luhaɥ sa mata

Gabos na nagdapit may luha sa mata
sa malipognauon togtog nin musica
ini si Trobador sabihon co gñona
sa licod nin carro may luha sa mata


Luhaŋ nagbobolos sa saɥiyaŋ mata
solog nin borabod iyo an kasama
idtoŋ hinanakit asin pagɥagagha
an gabos na taho nagŋaŋalas sinda

Luhang nagbobolos sa saiyang mata
solog nin borabod iyo an casama
idtong hinanakit asin pag-agagha
an gabos na tauo naggñagñalas sinda


An gabos naghaleɥ na nagdapit duman
kadtoŋ pagɥasiste kadtoŋ parasakay
paglakaw nin bitis duŋan an agraŋay
Trabyata ano pa sirbe koŋ mabuhay

An gabos naghale na nagdapit duman
cadtong pag-asiste cadtong parasacay
paglacao nin bitis dugñan an agragñay
Trabiata ano pa sirve cong mabuhay


Pagkadaɥiŋ swerte buhay koŋ maraɥot
lugar sa pagɥogma ŋonyan magtitiɥos
pagkataram kaɥini an buhay napatod
kadaklan na taho an naŋaggorobok

Pagcadaing suerte buhay cong maraot
lugar sa pag ogma gñonian magtitios
pagcataram caini an buhay napatod
cadaclan na tauo an nagñag goroboc


Paglakaw nin gadan napaɥontok ŋoɥna
tahoŋ desmayado padre nagɥayuda
maŋa kamahalan ŋaniɥ na iba pa
an maŋa nagtabaŋ sabihon pa baga

Paglacao nin gadan napaontoc gñona
tauong desmayado padre nag-ayuda
magña camahalan ngani na iba pa
an magña nagtabang sabihon pa baga


Duman sa pagloboŋ gabos na remedyo
ginibo nin maŋa asistidoŋ taho
pagɥayuda ninda may sakit na taho
nabuhay giraray dismayadoŋ idto

Duman sa paglobong gabos na remedio
guinibo nin magña asistidong tauo
pag ayuda ninda may sakit na tauo
nabuhay guiraray dismayadong idto


Dagos an pagloboŋ gadan binugtac na
tumba deposito na lolonadan niya
taho nagporoliɥ si gadan walat na
ta ipapatente bilog na magɥaga

Dagos an paglobong gadan binugtac na
tumba deposito na lolonadan nia
tauo nagporoli si gadan ualat na
ta ipapatente bilog na mag-aga


Tara igwaŋ saroɥ na nawalat duman
kaɥidtoŋ entierro na nagɥaɥataman
bilog na magɥaga duman sa simbahan
nagdamay sa poɥŋaw kadtoŋ pagkagadan

Tara iguang saro na naualat duman
caidtong entierro na nag-aataman
bilog na mag-aga duman sa simbahan
nagdamay sa pogñao cadtong pagcagadan


Firme an paglohod bilog na magdamlag
maŋa panambitan makaheherac
ay Trabyata ŋaya iniŋ pagkamugtak
kiɥisay mo baga ako iwinalat?

Firme an paglohod bilog na magdamlag
magña panambitan macaheherac
ay Trabiata gñaya ining pagcamugtac
ki-isay mo baga aco iwinalat?


ŋonyan isay pa daw sakoŋ raraŋahon
ta ika uya na kaɥiniŋ mamondoɥon
ay sayaŋ pa lamaŋ pagkaherac pagɥampon
tahoŋ kulaŋ palad pobreŋ si Trobador

Gñonian isay pa dao sacong raragñahon
ta ica uya na caining mamondoon
ay sayang pa lamang pagcaherac pag-ampon
tauong culang palad pobreng si Trobador


Pinaglalaɥom ko Trabyata koŋ ogma
iniŋ pagpuliɥ ko makakaɥolay pa
ay palan ini an labiŋ tristeza
tagama mo sakoɥ magabat na pena

Pinaglalaom co Trabiata cong ogma
ining pagpuli co macaca-olay pa
ay palan ini an labing tristeza
tagama mo saco magabat na pena


Pinagtagama mo uya naŋ nakamtan
Trabyata hiliŋa sakoɥ mo padamay
ay makamomondoɥ na pakikiɥolay
placer en el mundo sayaŋ basaŋ lamaŋ

Pinagtagama mo uya nang nacamtan
Trabiata hiligña saco mo padamay
ay macamomondo na pakiki-olay
placer en el mundo sayang basang lamang


Ipagpadigdi ko na ibalik ŋoɥna
sa nasabiŋ gadan ninsi pagkaɥaga
taho nagtiripon sa Santa Iglesia
kaɥiyan misa requiem maŋa padre kura

Ipagpadigdi co na ibalic gñona
sa nasabing gadan ninsi pagcaaga
tauo nagtiripon sa Santa Iglesia
caiyan misa requiem magña padre cura


Matapus an misa iluwas an gadan
kadaklan na taho nagɥaɥantabay
makamoromondo makaporopoɥŋaw
matagas na pusoɥ sukat na matunaw

Matapus an misa iluas an gadan
cadaclan na tauo nag-aantabay
macamoromondo macaporopogñao
matagas na puso sucat na matunao


Arin daw na pusoɥ an makapagɥogma
kon tinotogtog na Opera Trabyata
orog na kan ilaɥog idtoŋ baŋkay niya
sa nasabiŋ panteon mapoɥŋaw na lusa

Arin dao na puso an macapag ogma
con tinotogtog na Opera Trabiata
orog na can ilaog idtong bangcay nia
sa nasabing panteon mapogñao na lusa


kadaklan na taho anan nagmomondoɥ
sa saɥindaŋ mata luhaɥ nagtotoroɥ
an maluyaŋ boɥot bagaŋ pinagbacboɥ
entierro nin gadan makamoromondoɥ

Cadaclan na tauo anan nagmomondo
sa saindang mata luha nagtotoro
an maluyang boot bagang pinagbacbo
entierro nin gadan macamoromondo


An nasabiŋ gadan kan ikalaɥog na
sa nasabiŋ panteon tolos tinakpan na
kadtoŋ gapoŋ marmol magayon lapida
kon todo letrero ŋaran ni Trabyata

An nasabing gadan can icalaog na
sa nasabing panteon tolos tinacpan na
cadtong gapong marmol magayon lapida
con todo letrero gñaran ni Trabiata


Asin binugtak pa fechaŋ magayon
a doce de mayo na Viernes na hapon
de mil ocho cientos an bilaŋ na taɥon
treinta y tres Santos iyo an pagloboŋ

Asin binugtac pa fechang magayon
a doce de mayo na Viernes na hapon
de mil ocho cientos an bilang na taon
treinta y tres Santos iyo an paglobong


Iyoŋ lbinugtak kaidtoŋ lapida
sa takop nin panteon baŋkay ni Trabyata
taŋaniŋ mamidbid nin makakakita
daɥi magɥignorar sa linobŋan niya

Iyong lbinugtac caidtong lapida
sa tacop nin panteon bangcay ni Trabiata
tagñaning mamidbid nin macacakita
dai mag ignorar sa linobgñan nia


An kagduwaŋ padeɥ nagdapit saɥiya
anan na firmado kadtoŋ asistencia
iniŋ Papa Pio sa dagaɥ nin Roma
iyoŋ nasa pwesto pagka-Santo Papa

An cagduang pade nagdapit saiya
anan na firmado cadtong asistencia
ining Papa Pio sa daga nin Roma
iyong nasa puesto pagca Santo Papa


An nasabiŋ panteon kan mapalitada
serrado naŋ marhay pinagboktakan na
nin maŋa brillantes na nalaɥad sana
kon todo dorado aram ta an igwa

An nasabing panteon can mapalitada
serrado nang marhay pinagboctacan na
nin magña brillantes na nalaad sana
con todo dorado aram ta an igua


kon haros pa sana huli ta mayaman
pasakan an panteon nin maŋa bulawan
huliŋ igwa sinda otob an ano man
an saɥindaŋ gusto isamno sa gadan

Con haros pa sana huli ta mayaman
pasacan an panteon nin magña bulauan
huling igua sinda otob an ano man
an saindang gusto isamno sa gadan


Pagloboŋ matapus naŋagporoleɥ na
an gabos na taho si gadan walat na
a las siete nin baŋgi Trobador nagbwelta
nagdaraŋ martillo na ididisclava

Paglobong matapus nagñagporole na
an gabos na tauo si gadan ualat na
a las siete nin bangui Trobador nagbuelta
nagdarang martillo na ididisclava


Dagos lominaɥog kadtoŋ kamposanto
maŋa katakutan hinaliŋ totoɥo
huliŋ dadalawon nin enamorado
si idtohoŋ panteon refoso de muerto

Dagos lominaog cadtong camposanto
magña catacutan hinaling totoo
huling dadalauon nin enamorado
si idtohong panteon refoso de muerto


Dagos si Trobador kaɥidtoŋ linobŋan
an lapidaŋ takop tolos inabrihan
kajon (koffin) ni Trabyata ilintas duman
asin dinisclava kinuɥa an baŋkay

Dagos si Trobador caidtong linobgñan
an lapidang tacop tolos inabrihan
cajon (coffin) ni Trabiata ilintas duman
asin dinisclava kinua an bangcay


Baŋkay ni Trabyata tolos "sinakulo"(?)
kasabay an luhaɥ na nagtotoroŋ gayo
ay ŋaya Trabyata kasi yo me muerto
kon mapagmasdan ko an kamugtakan (?)

Bangcay ni Trabiata tolos "sinaculo"(?)
casabay an luha na nagtotorong gayo
ay gñaya Trabiata casi yo me muerto
con mapagmasdan co an camugtacan


An luhaɥ sa mata na nagdadalahay
An pagparatoroɥ di sukat masagaŋ
ay Trabyata ŋaya iniŋ kasakitan
kon mapasaɥimo daɥi mo matagal

An luha sa mata na nagdadalahay
An pagparatoro di sucat masagang
ay Trabiata gñaya ining casakitan
con mapasaimo dai mo matagal


Matiɥos mo baga kun manoŋod siɥmo
iniŋ kasakitan na tinitiɥos ko
ŋonyan baŋkay ka na raŋa nin pusoɥ ko
ay de me corazon anoŋ magigibo

Matios mo baga cun manogñod simo
ining casakitan na tinitios co
gñonian bangcay-ca na ragña nin puso co
ay de me corazon anong maguiguibo


Siɥisay na loko an makikiɥolay
sa gadan na taho an makakataram
pero pigtiɥos ko sakit na ano man
pagɥotob pagromdom maŋa katratohan

Siisay na loco an makiki-olay
sa gadan na tauo an macacataram
pero pigtios co sakit na ano man
pag-otob pagromdom magña catratohan


Napapaɥno ini ogma ko sa mata
tiŋraw nin pusoɥ ko sa sakit nin raŋa
haɥen si paŋakoɥ sa sakoɥ Trabyata
sa gabos koŋ sakit olay magdadamay ka 

Napapano ini ogma co sa mata
tingrao nin puso co sa sakit nin ragña
haen si pagñaco sa saco Trabiata
sa gabos cong sakit olay magdadamay ca 


Saroɥ paŋ olay mo sakoŋ naromdoman
olay mo sa sakoɥ di mo maliŋawan
ŋonyan napaɥno na ta di naromdoman
binorra sa pusoɥ sa boɥot siriŋ man

Saro pang olay mo sacong naromdoman
olay mo sa saco di mo malignauan
gñonian napano na ta di naromdoman
binorra sa puso sa boot siring man


ŋonyan baga haɥen na ogma mo Trabyata
pagherot saɥimo ŋonyan liŋawan  na
huliŋ napasiriŋ na ika gadan na
mamondo moŋ eroc pinagpasolo ka

Gñonian baga haen na ogma mo Trabiata
pagherot saimo gñonian ligñauan  na
huling napasiring na ica gadan na
mamondo mong eroc pinagpasolo ca


Siɥisay pa ŋonyan an kadamaydamay mo
kaɥinihoŋ panteon kalaboso de muerto
Trabyata boklata mahal na mata mo
kon siɥisay nagtiɥos ŋonyan sa saɥimo

Siisay pa gñonian an cadamaydamay mo
cainihong panteon calaboso de muerto
Trabiata boclata mahal na mata mo
con si-isay nagtios gñonian sa saimo


Marogmak na sana an saɥimoŋ baŋkay
digdi sa hawak ko di ko bobotsan
ay maŋa luhaɥ ko ki Trabyataŋ laman
kamo sumaromsom omiba tomonaw

Marogmac na sana an saimong bangcay
digdi sa hauac co di co bobotsan
ay magña luha co ki Trabiatang laman
camo sumaromsom omiba tomonao


Iniŋ paggiromdom nyakoɥ sa saɥimo
siriŋ kutaɥ naman an siɥmoŋ ginibo
kon napagadan ka sa maŋa martiryo
daɥiŋ hinanakit iniŋ ogma mo

Ining pagguiromdom niaco sa saimo
siring cuta naman an simong guinibo
con napagadan ca sa magña martirio
daing hinanakit ining ogma mo


Siɥisay namoɥot sakoɥ omarog pa
sa gadan nahadok daɥi naŋ halaga
pero pigtiɥos ko huli ta promisa
ta ika naŋ gayo an tunay koŋ ogma

Siisay namoot saco omarog pa
sa gadan nahadoc dai nang halaga
pero pigtios co huli ta promisa
ta ica nang gayo an tunay cong ogma


Na kun ogma sana Trabyata koŋ poɥon
mahiwas an mundoɥ daɥi kokulaŋon
huli sa kontrato naŋyariŋ kondisyon
maski toɥlaŋ ka na sakoŋ hahanapon

Na cun ogma sana Trabiata cong poon
mahiuas an mundo dai coculagñon
huli sa contrato nangyaring condicion
maski tolang ca na sacong hahanapon


Alagad ta ika buhay pa man ako
sayod liŋaw mo na ako pinaraɥ mo
kun ako mayaman sayod sa luba ko
sakoŋ pagkamugtac pinaliŋkodan mo

Alagad ta ica buhay pa man aco
sayod ligñao mo na aco pinara mo
cun aco mayaman sayod sa luba co
sacong pagcamugtac pinalingcodan mo


kayaɥ iniŋ pobre na dukhaŋ mamoɥot
minsan igwaŋ trato daɥi kinokuyog
maski pighihiliŋ tunay na panlawog
di namamaɥanan ta kinakasopog

Caya ining pobre na duchang mamoot
minsan iguang trato dai kinocuyog
maski pighihiling tunay na panlauog
di namamaanan ta kinacasopog


Bweno sa pagromdom gigiromdomon ka
pero an pagromdom medyo pasajera
el amor de pobre olay syempre viva
el corazon firme garoŋ sa pintura

Bueno sa pagromdom guiguiromdomon ca
pero an pagromdom medio pasajera
el amor de pobre olay siempre viva
el corazon firme garong sa pintura


Trabyata kun husto saɥimoŋ pagromdom
sagkod kutaɥ ŋonyan daɥi ka paŋ agom
daɥi pa naɥabot termino koŋ taɥon
kayaɥ napasiriŋ bilog koŋ paglaɥom

Trabiata cun husto saimong pagromdom
sagcod cuta gñonian dai ca pang agom
dai pa naabot termino cong taon
caya napasiring bilog cong paglaom


Huliŋ pagɥisip ko Trabyata koŋ buhay
akoŋ homina1eɥ sa siɥmoŋ atubaŋ
daɥi ako mamoɥot oh sakuyaŋ tiŋraw
na kun bakoŋ ika an manikaɥolay

Huling pag isip co Trabiata cong buhay
acong homina1e sa simong atubang
dai aco mamoot oh sacuyang tingrao
na cun bacong ica an mani caolay


Salva nos Salvator por virtutem Cruzis
Que Salvati Pierum Miserere nobis
despierta Trabyata liliŋya an haɥdit
tolos na naggiɥos an buhay nagbalik

Salva nos Salvator por virtutem Cruzis
que Salvati Pierum Miserere nobis
despierta Trabiata lilingya an hadit
tolos na nagguios an bohay nagbalic


Siriŋ sa maɥwot Trabyataŋ raŋa ko
satoŋ kuyogon idtoŋ satoŋ trato
sa Dyos talaga dakulaŋ milagro
Trabyata naggiɥos nabuhay sa mundo

Siring sa mauot Trabiatang ragña co
satong cuyogon idtong satong trato
sa Dios talaga daculang milagro
Trabiata nagguios nabuhay sa mundo


Huliŋ pagkamoɥot na husto sa boɥot
di nakapaŋalad an mahal na Dyos
sa kinayaskayas sa linokoblokob
sogok pagkahimsaɥ lumuwas an tiŋog

Huling pagcamoot na husto sa boot
di nacapagñalad an mahal na Dios
sa kinayaskayas sa linocoblocob
sogoc pagcahimsa lumuas an tigñog


Gadan tominaram an olay iniho
kagadanan palan an "nanapolan"(?) ko
sakoŋ piglalaɥom na buhay pa ako
man palan daɥi na ako kaɥiniŋ mundo

Gadan tominaram an olay iniho
cagadanan palan an "nanapolan"(?) co
sacong piglalaom na buhay pa aco
man palan dai na aco caining mundo


Idtoŋ pagkataram binoklat an mata
akabo de decir primera palabra
napapahoraray sa takyag nin ogma
pusoɥ ni Trobador nagkaɥesperanza

Idtong pagcataram binoclat an mata
acabo de decir primera palabra
napapahoraray sa taquiag nin ogma
puso ni Trobador nagca esperanza


Paŋalagkalag sa ibabaw nin mundoɥ
siɥmoŋ pagkamugtak horophoropon mo
maɥimboŋ moŋ torog sukat na ogma ko
hari man kananok horasaŋ iniho

Pagñalagcalag sa ibabao nin mundo
simong pagcamugtac horophoropon mo
maimbong mong torog sucat na ogma co
hari man cananoc horasang iniho


Trabyata baŋon na maŋalagkalag ka
"han"(?) ni Trobador napapahoraray ka
Trobador an olay ano ta uya ka
hawak ko saɥimoŋ nasasakulo pa

Trabiata bagñon na magñalagcalag ca
"han"(?) ni Trobador napapahoraray ca
Trobador an olay ano ta uya ca
hawac co saimong nasasaculo pa


Buhay ko Trobador ipagsasaysay ko
na kun sa masetas igwaŋ hardinero
ako ŋonyan lapas sa satoŋ kontrato
garoŋ di maboka ŋonyan an ŋosoɥ ko

Buhay co Trobador ipagsasaysay co
na cun sa macetas iguang jardinero
aco gñonian lapas sa satong contrato
garong di maboca gñonian an gñoso co


ŋosoɥ ko Trobador garoŋ di mabuka
sopog ko saɥimo ta igwa naŋ marka
an saroŋ kondisyon medyo may errata
na ako naholog sa kamot ni Norma

Gñoso co Trobador garong di mabuca
sopog co saimo ta igua nang marca
an sarong condicion medio may errata
na aco naholog sa camot ni Norma


Si Norma na ŋonyan nagin hardinero
korona del amor iyoŋ tinaɥwan ko
mala ta nanugaɥ iniŋ mariniro
na inakoɥ nyamo asu tercero año

Si Norma na gñonian naguin jardinero
corona del amor iyong tinauan co
mala ta nanuga ining mariniro
na inako niamo asu tercero año


Trobador paɥno sakoɥ an pagherot
paraɥa na ako sa paghorophorop
huli sa salaɥ ko ta daɥi naɥotob
patawara ako na daɥi matapos

Trobador pano saco an pagherot
paraa na aco sa paghorophorop
huli sa sala co ta dai na otob
patawara aco na dai matapos


Pinatatawad ko siɥmoŋ kaboyohan
paɥanhon Trabyata sakoɥ an kasaɥlan
bweno sa kontrato kita nagkahaman
pero kwestyon akoŋ ginikanan

Pinatatawad co simong caboyohan
paanhon Trabiata saco an casalan
bueno sa contrato kita nagkahaman
pero kuestion akong guinicanan


Husto an boɥot mo igwa nin gobyerno
kon ika dolokan nin interesado
saro koŋ general sa syudad nin Turko
komo may hadeɥ ka paɥnoŋ pagboɥot mo

Husto an boot mo igua nin gobierno
con ica dolocan nin interesado
saro cong general sa ciudad nin Turko
como may hade ca panong pag boot mo


Na siriŋ man sana iniŋ maŋa bagay
ta may maguraŋ ka sakop ka giraray
paɥnoŋ pagsuhay ta pinagboboɥtan
pirit magkukoyog daɥi magsusuhay

Na siring man sana ining mga bagay
ta may magurang ca sacop ca guiraray
panong pag suhay ta pinagbobotan
pirit magcucoyog dai magsusuhay


kayaɥ an boɥot ko daɥiŋ sentemyento
minsan nakalapas sa maŋa kontrato
an sa sato naman ŋonyan an gobyerno
iyoŋ minamaɥwot kon baga paɥano.

Caya an boot co daing sentemiento
minsan nacalapas sa mga contrato
an sa sato naman gñonian an gobierno
iyong minamawot con baga paano.


Ni minsan sa Dyos an siriŋ na bagay
baga sa daɥi na magigin kasaɥlan
kaya magɥisip ka kon anoŋ marhay
ta mahaleɥ kita kaɥiniŋ banwaɥan

Ni minsan sa Dios an siring na bagay
baga sa dai na maguiguin casalan
caya mag-isip ca con anong marhay
ta mahale quita caining banuaan


An sinimbag man kaɥini ni Trabyata
Trobador an Panteon siɥmoŋ hirahaya
ta anoŋ sabihon kun may magbisita
makakaɥestrañar sa laɥog nin banwaɥ

An sinimbag man caini ni Trabiata
Trobador an Panteon simong Hirahaya
ta anong sabihon cun may magvisita
macaca estrañar sa laog nin banua


Marahay Trobador kun di konosido
nin bilog na banwaɥ an sakoŋ retrato
kon magbisita anoŋ maginibo
na madisamular (disimular?) an siriŋ na gibo

Marahay Trobador cun di conocido
nin bilog na banwa an sacong retrato
con mag-visita anong maguinibo
na madisamular (disimular?) an siring na guibo;


kun an boɥot ko olay ni Trabyata
maghanap Trobador nin ikasalida
digdi sa panteon nin baŋkay na iba
digdi kaɥiniŋ kahon na ikalaɥog ta

Cun an boot co olay ni Trabiata
maghanap Trobador nin icasalida
digdi sa panteon nin bangcay na iba
digdi caining cajon na icalaog ta


Tara igwa duman baŋkay na daɥi pa
nalapa an laman media enterrada
na saroŋ babahe arog ki Trabyata
kinotkot an kahon ninda sinalida

Tara igua duman bangkay na dai pa
nalapa an laman media enterrada
na sarong babae arog qui Trabiata
kinotcot an cajon ninda sinalida


Na kan baŋgiŋ idto, labiŋ kapagalan
Trobador Trabyata pagkahon nin baŋkay
kan mapamugtak na sa kahon na tunay
saka si lapida tinakop giraray

Na can banguing idto, labing capagalan
Trobador Trabiata pag cajon nin bangcay
can mapamugtac na sa cajon na tunay
saca si lapida tinacop guiraray


Siriŋ sa naŋyari kaɥinihoŋ duwa
na inihoŋ panteon bayaɥan ta ŋaya
a las doce de la noche vamos a marcha ya
en un bapor listo para Amerika

Siring sa nangyari cainihong dua
na inihong panteon bayaan ta gñaya
a las doce de la noche vamos a marcha ya
en un bapor listo para America


Dinara an gabos nindaŋ kasaŋkapan
na maŋa efectos kadtoŋ baŋkay
dagaŋ Amerika kan sinda paduman
na sinda naghaleɥ Españaŋ Banwaɥan

Dinara an gabos nindang casangcapan
na magña efectos cadtong bangcay
dagang America can sinda paduman
na sinda naghale Españang Banuaan


Na kan duman na sinda nagɥoɥontok
planto una kasa ta nagnenegocios
huliŋ igwaŋ pirak na otob an gabos
nahaman tolos duman na nagɥontok

Na can duman na sinda nagoontok
planto una casa ta nagnenegocios
huling iguang pirac na otob an gabos
nahaman tolos duman na nag-ontoc


Pira man an swerte komo datiŋ igwa
dakulaɥ naŋ riko Trobador Trabyata
idto an inabot na ogma man ninda
sa labiŋ moninoŋ nagɥerok na sinda

Pira man an suerte como dating igua
dacula nang rico Trobador Trabiata
idto an inabot na ogma man ninda
sa labing moninong nag-eroc na sinda


Tara an ginibo sinda nagpakasal
Padre Benerondo padreno de German
Dr. na dakula asin gagalaŋan
sa dagaɥ nin Lisboa pinagtatakutan

Tara an guinibo sinda nagpacasal
padre Benerondo padreno de German
Dr. na dacula asin gagalagñan
sa daga nin Lisboa pinag tatacutan


Bilog na an boɥot kaɥinihoŋ duwa
tiwasay an isip an honahonaɥ pa
kan anom naŋ taɥon pagkakasal ninda
mondoɥ ni Trobador na daɥiŋ kasama

Bilog na an boot cainihong dua
tiwasay an isip an honahona pa
can anom nang taon pagcacasal ninda
mondo ni Trobador na daing casama


Nagin sentimyento asin kamondoɥan
ta di naŋaŋakiɥ kadtoŋ kahaloyan
ta piglalaɥom nindaŋ pagkakasal
na sinda maŋakiɥ magin kaɥogmahan

Naguin sentimiento asin camondoan
ta di nagñagñaki cadtong cahaloyan
ta piglalaom nindang pagcacasal
na sinda magñaki maguin caogmahan


Ipagpadigdi ko Dr. na si Norma
nasa kadukhaɥan nagɥeɥerok na siya
somaboŋ sa boɥot honahonaɥ niya
siya magnenegosyo dagaŋ Amerika

Ipagpadigdi co Dr. na si Norma
nasa caduchaan nag-eeroc na sia
somabong sa boot honahona nia
sia magnenegocio dagang America


Ta sa Amerika an paghanap marhay
si Norma nagɥisip na duman paɥalaw
gabos na labrador na paɥayawɥayaw
dinaraŋ totoɥo kaɥidtoŋ pagsakay

Ta sa America an paghanap marhay
si Norma nag-isip na duman paalaw
gabos na labrador na paayawayaw
dinarang totoo caidtong pagsacay


Dagaŋ Amerika kan siya dumatoŋ
tolos nakita si saɥiyaŋ agom
naribok an isip sa pagboroŋboroŋ
kan sobraŋ pakita kasaroŋ bitoɥon

Dagang America can sia dumatong
tolos nakita si saiyang agom
nariboc an isip sa pagborongborong
can sobrang pakita casarong bitoon


Na kan torohokan kan saɥiyaŋ mata
si saɥiyaŋ agom iyo an kasama
kondi an defekto an pagduwaduwa 
huli ta gadan na idtoŋ agom niya

Na can torohocan can saiyang mata
si saiyang agom iyo an casama
condi an defecto an pagduadua 
huli ta gadan na idtong agom nia


Ta kon buhay sana daɥi magboboroŋ
bilog an pagɥisip sa saɥiyaŋ agom
na minsan na baɥgo huli kan panahon
kasugad giraray kun totorohokan

Ta con buhay sana dai magboborong
bilog an pag-isip sa saiyang agom
na minsan na bago huli can panahon
casugad guiraray cun totorohocan


Sa pagboroŋboroŋ kaɥiniŋ si Norma
boɥot "pinagibog"(?) bagaman iyo na
alagad an agom niyaŋ si Trabyata
na midbid man tolos idtoŋ agom niya

Sa pagborongborong caining si Norma
boot "pinagibog"(?) bagaman iyo na
alagad an agom niang si Trabiata
na midbid man tolos idtong agom nia


Trobador tinokdo ŋonyan namidbiran
ini si Trabyata makuriɥ an handal
agom na si Norma ta kon mamidbiran

Trobador tinocdo gñonian namidbiran
ini si Trabiata macuri an handal
agom na si Norma ta con mamidbiran


Olay ni Trobador Tribyata paraɥa
sa siɥmoŋ boɥot an pusoɥ husaya
paɥnoŋ pakamidbid ŋonyan saɥimo pa
huliŋ ika gadan naghaleɥ saɥiya

Olay ni Trobador Tribiata paraa
sa simong boot an puso husaya
panong pacamidbid gñonian saimo pa
huling ica gadan naghale saiya


Simbag ni Trabyata siriŋ an dahelan
pagdara nin takot asin kahandalan
minsan ŋaya paɥno ay mamimidbiran
Trobador ni Norma sakoŋ kamogtakan

Simbag ni Trabiata siring an dahelan
pagdara nin tacot asin cahandalan
minsan gñaya pano ay mamimidbiran
Trobador ni Norma sacong camogtacan


kondiɥ an tugon ko Trobador saɥimo
Norma kon magdigdi magdaraŋ genero
hare admitira an maŋa preteksto
o maŋa tataramon siɥmo agom ko

Condi an tugon co Trobador saimo
Norma con magdigdi mag darang genero
hare admitira an magña pretexto
o magña tataramon simo agom co


Tara kaɥagahan nadara si Norma
kan maŋa librada na saɥiyaŋ dara
ta an nasa isip sa paghihiŋita
kon klaroŋ totoo na si agom niya

Tara caagahan nadara si Normai
can magña librada na saiyang dara
ta an nasa isip sa paghihigñita
con clarong totoo na si agom nia


Norma huminilig mondoɥ sabihon pa
ta daɥi nahiliŋ an paghihiŋita
kahampaŋ na haroŋ nakihapit siya
ta nakihomapot sa "madalo"(?) sana

Norma huminilig mondo sabihon pa
ta dai nahiling an paghihigñita
cahampang na harong nakihapit sia
ta nakihomapot sa "madalo"(?) sana


Tara inakoɥ man kaɥidtoŋ kagharoŋ
si Norma duman na mondoɥ di sabihon
firme sa bintanaɥ ta piggigiromdom
tibaɥad man dumoɥŋaw si saɥiyaŋ agom

Tara inako man caidtong cagharong
si Norma duman na mondo di sabihon
firme sa bintana ta pigguiguiromdom
tibaad man dumogñao si saiyang agom


Poɥon man kaɥidto pagɥabot ni Norma
Trabyata sa kwarto firme an estada
nunka na dumoɥŋaw lamaŋ sa bintanaɥ
Normaŋ nagmamasid mundoɥ sabihon pa

Poon man caidto pag-abot ni Norma
Trabiata sa cuarto firme an estada
nunca na dumogñao lamang sa bintana
Normang nagmamasid mundo sabihon pa


Talaga nin Dyos nin Virgen na mahal
Trabyata nanagboɥ Trobador siriŋ man
nakuɥaŋ padrino kaɥidtoŋ kinasal
napakyaw kaɥiniŋ duwa iniŋ kaɥogmahan

Talaga nin Dios nin Virgen na mahal
Trabiata nanagbo Trobador siring man
na cuang padrino caidtong kinasal
na pakiaw caining dua ining caogmahan


Sa aldaw na Lunes pagselebrar kaɥidto
sa aldaw na iyan iyoŋ kasamyento
Norma nagpresentar asistensyaŋ idto
daɥi ipinaŋalad saɥiyaŋ obheto

Sa aldao na Lunes pag celebrar caidto
sa aldao na iyan iyong casamiento
Norma nagpresentar asistenciang idto
dai ipinagñalad saiyang objeto


Saɥiyaŋ hinagad duman sa may boda
na magin serbyente duman sa lamesa
aldaw na termeno asu umabot na
nobyo asin nobya kinasal na sinda

Saiyang hinagad duman sa may boda
na maguin serviente duman sa lamesa
aldao na termeno asu umabot na
novio asin novia kinasal na sinda


Naŋagporoleɥ na tawoŋ kadaklan
nobya y padrino madrina siriŋ man
sa mesa handa na kakanon na anan
an pagpwesto baga daɥiŋ kasawayan

Nagñagporole na tauong cadaclan
novia y padrino madrina siring man
sa mesa handa na cacanon na anan
an pagpuesto baga daing casauayan


Nasa totukawan kaɥiniŋ si Trabyata
duman nagtitindog serbyenteŋ si Norma
señas generales kaɥidtoŋ agom niya
daɥi nin natadaɥ kayaɥ namidbid na

Nasa totucauan caining si Trabiata
duman nagtitindog servienteng si Norma
señas generales caidtong agom nia
dai nin natada caya namidbid na


Matapus pagkakan asin kaɥogmahan
Trabyata nagpuliɥ Trobador siriŋ man
Trabyata makuriɥ maŋa kahandalan
agom na si Norma ta kon mamidbiran

Matapus pagcacan asin caogmahan
Trabiata nagpuli Trobador siring man
Trabiata macuri magña cahandalan
agom na si Norma ta con mamidbiran


Sa laɥog nin haroŋ firme si Trabyata
ki Normaŋ sentido rebok an pensada
kon anoŋ maneho magiboŋ idea
si saɥiyaŋ agom na madara sana

Sa laog nin harong firme si Trabiata
ki Normang sentido reboc an pensada
con anong manejo maguibong idea
si saiyang agom na madara sana


Somaboŋ sa isip homanap maraɥoton
por regor y por si Trabyata agawon
kondiɥ napagɥisip iniŋ rebolusyon
armadaŋ dakulaɥ masakit gibohon

Somabong sa isip homanap maraoton
por regor y por si Trabiata agawon
condi napag-isip ining revolucion
armadang dacula masakit guibohon


Tara napagɥisip kaɥiniŋ si Norma
nagduman sa padre planto una kejo
kontra ki Trobador asin ki Trabyata
siriŋ an pahayag sa padre kura

Tara napag-isip caining si Norma
nagduman sa padre planto una quejo
contra qui Trobador asin ki Trabiata
siring an pahayag sa padre cura


Nakikimaherak señior sa saɥimo
kon sukat liliŋyon kan pagkaherak mo
na an sakoŋ agom señor madara ko
iyoŋ dinodulok querella saɥimo

Nakikimaherac señior sa saimo
con sucat lilingyon can pagcaherac mo
na an sacong agom señor madara co
iyong dinoduloc querella saimo


Taramon nin kura siɥisay an ŋaran
asin siɥisay ŋaya an nagɥaɥataman
an simbag ni Norma Padeŋ gagalaŋan
nyaɥon sa merkader Trobador an ŋaran

Taramon nin cura si-isay an gñaran
asin si-isay gñaya an nag-aataman
an simbag ni Norma Padeng gagalagñan
niaon sa mercader Trobador an gñaran


Jesus Maria y Josef, taramon nin kura
hola demandante ano iniŋ queja
taɥdaw ta pasiriŋ an saɥimoŋ demanda
agom nin merkader ta nagsososog ka

Jesus Maria y Josef, taramon nin cura
hola demandante ano ining queja
tadao ta pasiring an saimong demanda
agom nin mercader ta nagso-sosog ca


Baɥaŋ pagkataram kaɥiyan dilaɥ mo
agom nin merkader pigsososog moŋ gayo
asin ta napano ta nakasuhay siɥmo
digdi kaɥiniŋ lugar siɥmoŋ nabibisto

Baang pagcataram caiyan dila mo
agom nin mercader pigsososog mong gayo
asin ta napano ta nacasuhay simo
digdi caining lugar simong nabibisto


Si sakuyaŋ agom ŋaya si Trabyata
nagadan po ŋaya dagaɥ nin España
taramon nin padre taɥdaw naputik ka
gadan si agom mo ta pigsososog mo pa

Si sacuyang agom gñaya si Trabiata
nagadan po gñaya daga nin España
taramon nin padre tadao naputic ca
gadan si agom mo ta pigsososog mo pa


Anoŋ di sosogon padreŋ kaguraŋnan
huliŋ namidbid ko kaɥiniŋ banwaɥan
kayaɥ an isip ko siɥmoŋ palinawan
sentensya sa samoɥ an hagad ko ŋonyan

Anong di sosogon padreng cagurangnan
huling namidbid co caining banuaan
caya an isip co simong palinawan
sentencia sa samo an hagad co gñonian


An sentensyaŋ ini kon dimo mahimo
na may pagkatakot kaɥinihoŋ kaso
itaɥo moŋ poder sa ibaŋ kurato
Obispo kardinal kaɥiniŋ distrito

An sentenciang ini con dimo mahimo
na may pagcatacot cainihong caso
itao mong poder sa ibang curato
Obispo cardinal caining destrito


Padre Benerendo madonoŋ na kura
naribok an isip gumiboŋ sentensya
Norma an boɥot mo saɥimoŋ bisaya
sa giboŋ matanos daɥi maglapas ka

Padre Benerendo madonong na cura
naribok an isip gumibong sentencia
Norma an boot mo saimong bisaya
sa guibong matanos dai maglapas ca


Na daɥi man ika magɥisip magholaw
an tahoŋ gadan na siɥmoŋ binobuhay
sominimbag namam sa Padeŋ nagtaram
ako may apelo kaɥiniŋ maŋa bagay

Na dai man ica mag-isip magholao
an tauong gadan na simong binobuhay
sominimbag namam sa Padeng nagtaram
aco may apelo caining magña bagay


kon dimo mahimo sako sa "????"
sa señor Obispo ako "????"
duman hagadon ko iniŋ sentensya
ŋaniŋ matalastas "????" ka "????"

Con dimo mahimo saco sa "????"
sa señor Obispo aco "????"
duman hagadon co ining sentencia
gñaning matalastas "????" ca "????"


An olay ni kura baga daɥiŋ "???? ?
na makuɥa "???" na "mapaɥagibon??"
Trobador Trabyata aso an "kag????"
saka midbiron mo na agom mo iyan

An olay ni cura baga daing "???? ?
na macua "???" na "mapaaguibon??"
Trobador Trabiata aso an "cag????"
saca midbiron mo na agom mo iyan


"Samac"(?) sana iyan tataramon ni Norma
taɥdaw nagkasal ka na daɥiŋ proklama
siɥmoŋ ipaɥapod sa maŋa persona
na an informacion gibohon saɥinda

"Samac"(?) sana iyan tataramon ni Norma
tadao nagcasal ka na daing proclama
simong ipaapod sa mga persona
na an informacion guibohon sainda


Tara an babahe tuboɥ sa España
taɥdaw kinasal mo na daɥiŋ proklama
Padre pinaɥapod Trobador Trabyata
ominabot tolos sa kombento dara

Tara an babae tubo sa España
tadao kinasal mo na daing proclama
Padre pinaapod Trobador Trabiata
ominabot tolos sa convento dara


Trobador naghapot o hadeŋ poɥon ko
kon ano ta kami ipinakuɥa mo
padre suminimbag ŋaya may supliko
an taga España sobre ki agom mo

Trobador naghapot o hadeng poon co
con ano ta cami ipinacua mo
padre suminimbag gñaya may supliCO
an taga España sobre ki agom mo


Tara pigsososog si agom mo daɥa
Trobador nagtindog sa mismoŋ presensya
Padre no podemos abrir nuestra boka
kon taɥdaw ta siriŋ naŋyari saɥinda

Tara pigsososog si agom mo daa
Trobador nagtindog sa mismong presencia
Padre no podemos abrir nuestra boca
con tadao ta siring nangyari sainda


Se lo fuera padre ese atrevido
no puede molestar sa kamahalan mo
di ko matitiɥos desprecioŋ ginibo
Señor padre kura sa atubaŋan mo

Se lo fuera padre ese atrevido
no puede molestar sa camahalan mo
di co matitios despreciong guinibo
Señor padre cura sa atubangan mo


Ipakihomapot Padre kuraŋ mahal
agom kaɥiyan taho kon sakoŋ inabtan
asin ta pigsosog kaniŋ maŋa lugar
kun dara nin taho o anoŋ dahilan

Ipakihomapot Padre curang mahal
agom caiyan tauo con sacong inabtan
asin ta pigsosog caning mga lugar
cun dara nin tauo o anong dahilan


An sa padre baga naghapot giraray
kaɥiniŋ demandante kon namimidbiran
inihoŋ babahe siɥmoŋ kaɥatubaŋ
syerto ŋaya señor na agom ko iyan

An sa padre baga naghapot guiraray
caining demandante con namimidbiran
inihong babae simong caatubang
cierto gñaya señor na agom co iyan


Trabyata hinapot kan Señor parroko
kon an demandante namidbiran mo
la kual "ostresta yo no konozko"(?)
kon siɥisay iyan lokoŋ agrabyado

Trabiata hinapot can Señor parroco
con an demandante namidbiran mo
la cual "ostresta yo no conozco"(?)
con siisay iyan locong agraviado


Taramon kan kura napapano ka Norma
siɥmoŋ pigsosog ta di namidbid ika
Norma no es "ora"(?) la mujer propio
qye fue enterada ta nagsosog ka

Taramon can cura napapano ca Norma
simong pigsosog ta di namidbid ica
Norma no es "ora"(?) la mujer propio
que fue enterada ta nagsosog ca


Creo que mi mujer padre se enterro
yo "eso"(?) tambien que fue sepultado
pero es la question como veo vivo
pienso yO que ese debe ser milagro

Creo que mi mujer padre se enterro
yo "eso"(?) tambien que fue sepultado
pero es la question como veo vivo
pienso yO que ese debe ser milagro


ginibo nin padre pigɥiba si Norma
sumakay sa bapor dagos sa España
iniŋ informacion gibohon saɥinda
lugar del pantion kukuɥan nin prweba

Guinibo nin padre pig-iba si Norma
sumacay sa bapor dagos sa España
ining informacion guibohon sainda
lugar del pantion cucuan nin prueba


Dagos sa kombnto an padreŋ idtoho
asin ta hinagad an libroŋ de muerto
na hiliŋ na duman an maŋa firmado
na kagduwaŋ padeɥ an nagdapit kadto

Dagos sa convento an padreng idtoho
asin ta hinagad an librong de muerto
na hiling na duman an magña firmado
na cagduang pade an nagdapit cadto


Asin nagdagos pa duman sa linubŋan
nahiliŋ nin gabos maŋa kamugtakan
sagkod pati kahon huliŋ inabrihan
idtoŋ si panteon duman pa si toɥlaŋ

Asin nagdagos pa duman sa linubgñan
nahiling nin gabos magña camugtacan
sagcod pati cajon huling inabrihan
idtong si panteon duman pa si tolang


Binogtak pa sa papel kopias de entiero
Sagkod si firmante kagduwaŋ kurato
hinapot si Norma ano na midbid mo
iniŋ maŋa tuɥlaŋ kaɥiniŋ agom mo

Binogtac pa sa papel copias de entiero
Sagcod si firmante cagduang curato
hinapot si Norma ano na midbid mo
ining magña tulang caining agom mo


Oho ŋaya Señor iyo ŋani iyan
tara napapaɥno an sa padreŋ olay
idtoŋ sa Amerika agom mo giraray
oho idto señor an agom koŋ tunay

Oho gñaya Señor iyo gñani iyan
tara napapano an sa padreng olay
idtong sa America agom mo guiraray
o-ho idto señor an agom cong tunay


Masayod nin padre todas las razones
ay entonces Norma dos mujeres tienes
Cuantos casamientos y antecedentes
Que le recabemos no vale entonces

Masayod nin padre todas las razones
ay entonces Norma dos mujeres tienes
cuantos casamientos y antecedentes
que le recabemos no vale entonces


La de Amerika es tu mujer propia
este del panteon creo misteriosa
Cuando el padre remito a Roma
las declaraciones tambien la persona

La de America es tu mujer propia
este del panteon creo misteriosa
cuando el padre remito a Roma
las declaraciones tambien la persona


Pigɥiba ni Norma an ginahaŋ tunay
somakay sa bapor Padre siriŋ naman
dagos sa Amerika hahapiton duman
Trobador Trabyata taŋaniŋ masaray

Pig-iba ni Norma an guinahang tunay
somacay sa vapor Padre siring naman
dagos sa America hahapiton duman
Trobador Trabiata tagñaning masaray


kinuɥa nin bapor iniŋ magɥesposa
ipaparemitir sa dagaɥ nin Roma
Obispo kardinal o an Santo Papa
iyo sanaŋ mabuhay magtaɥoŋ sentensya

Quinua nin vapor ining mag-esposa
ipaparemitir sa daga nin Roma
Obispo Cardinal o an Santo Papa
iyo sanang mabuhay magtaong sentencia


Señor Santo Papa si Leon na Doctor
duman sa sentensya kaɥiniŋ asunto
iniŋ presentasyon tolos na ginibo
naɥaraman tolos an saɥindaŋ tuyo

Señor Santo Papa si Leon na Doctor
duman sa sentencia caining asunto
ining presentacion tolos na guinibo
naaraman tolos an saindang tuyo


ginibo nin Papa akiɥ ibinogtak
duman kadtoŋ kwarto de la real salas
Trobador Trabyata sinda nagŋaŋalas
naglohod na sinda na nagpapahayag

Guinibo nin Papa aki ibinogtac
duman cadtong cuarto de la real salas
Trobador Trabiata sinda naggñagñalas
naglohod na sinda na nagpapahayag


En vuestra beautitud vuestra Excelencia
saɥimoŋ husayon iniŋ sakoŋ queja
Norma napapaɥno ini si Trabyata
siɥmoŋ namimidbid na agom mo siya

En vuestra beautitud vuestra Excelencia
saimong husayon ining sacong queja
Norma napapano ini si Trabiata
simong namimidbid na agom mo sia


Illustrisimo señor amaŋ gagalaŋan
an pighahapot mo namimidbid ko iyan
"siendo"(?) ŋaya señor na agom koŋ tunay
sa dagaŋ España kami duduman

Illustrisimo señor amang gagalagñan
an pighahapot mo namimidbid co iyan
"siendo"(?) gñaya señor na agom cong tunay
sa dagang España cami duduman


Taraman nin Papa napano Norma
ta sa simoŋ agom nakasuhay ika
siriŋ kaɥini señor kan paŋakiɥ niya
binaweɥ ako nin Dyos na Amaɥ

Taraman nin Papa napano Norma
ta sa simong agom naka suhay ica
siring caini señor can pagñaki nia
binawe aco nin Dios na Ama


Daɥi ko pigsentir komo era muerto
enterada vi yo en equal sepulcro
pero es la question como esta vivo
siempre me obliga komo namidbid ko

Dai co pigsentir como era muerto
enterada vi yo en equal sepulcro
pero es la cuestion como esta vivo
siempre me obliga como namidbid co


Trabyata napaɥno, an olay nin Papa
siɥmoŋ namimidbid inihoŋ si Norma
syerto ŋaya Señor kan ako buhay pa
daɥi pa gadan an agom ko siya

Trabiata napano, an olay nin Papa
simong namimidbid inihong si Norma
cierto gñaya Señor can aco buhay pa
dai pa gadan an agom co sia


Tara ŋunyan Señor daɥi namidbiran
kaɥiniŋ resureksyon nyakoŋ pagkabuhay
kan ako buhay pa siyaŋ ikinasal
pagkuyog ki amaɥ ta pinagbobotan

Tara gñunian Señor dai namidbiran
caining resureccion niacong pagcabuhay
can aco buhay pa siang ikinasal
pagcuyog ki ama ta pinagbobotan


Ako may katipan kadtoŋ daraga pa
iyo ini Señor an sakoŋ kaɥiba
huli sa kondisyon na samoŋ kontrata
talaga nin Dyos liwat nabuhay pa

Aco may catipan cadtong daraga pa
iyo ini Señor an sacong caiba
huli sa condicion na samong contrata
talaga nin Dios liwat nabuhay pa


Trabyata napaɥno ta nagpakasal ka
siendo que may agom buhay pa si Norma
husto ŋaya Señor na buhay pa siya
ta ako nagadan asin siya balo na

Trabiata napano ta nagpacasal ca
siendo que may agom buhay pa si Norma
husto gñaya Señor na buhay pa sia
ta aco nagadan asin sia balo na


Taɥdaw daɥi Señor ako magpakasal
Como nueva vida baɥgo akoŋ buhay
el que "padecio"(?) ya iyo sakoŋ damayan
ta iyo sakoɥ naghaɥdit nin marhay

Tadao dai Señor aco magpacasal
como nueva vida bago acong buhay
el que "padecio"(?) ya iyo sacong damayan
ta iyo saco naghadit nin marhay


An olay nin papa may katanosan ka
tienes buen direcho de nueva esposa
Norma si tu quieres, aunque esta viva
busca otra mujer si Vd. le gusta

An olay nin papa may catanosan ca
tienes buen direcho de nueva esposa
Norma si tu quieres, aunque esta viva
busca otra mujer si Vd. le gusta


Señor no puede yo buscar mujer otra
el que esta aque es lo quo me gusta
isipa man bayaɥ Señor Santo Papa
paɥnoŋ paghanap ko buhay si Trabyata

Señor no puede yo buscar mujer otra
el que esta aque es lo quo me gusta
isipa man baya Señor Santo Papa
panong paghanap co buhay si Trabiata


Naribok an isip ninsi Padre Santo
kaɥiniŋ  maŋa bagay disputadoŋ iniho
siɥisay apelaran kaɥinihoŋ kaso
huli ta an gabos tiene buen direcho

Nariboc an isip ninsi Padre Santo
caining  magña bagay disputadong iniho
si-isay apelaran cainihong caso
huli ta an gabos tiene buen direcho


Na minsan an Papa igwaŋ kamahalan
bastaŋ may razon ka daɥi binabasaŋ
naghapot an Papa Trobador an olay
anoŋ saboɥot mo kaɥiniŋ maŋa bagay

Na minsan an Papa iguang camahalan
bastang may razon ca dai binabasang
naghapot an Papa Trobador an olay
anong saboot mo caining magña bagay


An sa sakuyaɥ po oh Papaŋ matubis
garoŋ di itogot nin boɥot ko isip
nin huli ta ini talaga nin laŋit
akoŋ naɥonoŋan nabuhay nagbalik

An sa sacuya po oh Papang matubis
garong di itogot nin boot co isip
nin huli ta ini talaga nin lagñit
acong naonogñan nabuhay nagbalic


Huliŋ kamoŋ duwa poro agrabyados
quiere hacer prueba, ano oyon kamo?
kaya minadolok kami sa saɥimo
ta nuestra voluntad bajo tu amparo

Huling camong dua poro agraviados
quiere hacer prueba, ano oyon camo?
caya minadoloc cami sa saimota
nuestra voluntad bajo tu amparo


ginibo nin Papa akiɥ pinaluwas
duman kaɥidtoŋ kwarto de la real salas
Pagluwas kan akiɥ si inaɥ hinanap
binokasan si soso sinopsop si gatas

Guinibo nin Papa aqui pinaluas
duman caidtong cuarto de la real salas
Pagluas can aqui si ina hinanap
binocasan si soso sinopsop si gatas


lyo naŋ pagbolos kan luhaɥ mata
huli kadtoŋ akiɥ kan saɥiyaŋ makita
ay! akiɥ ko ŋaya magpasalamat ka
ta kun daɥiŋ’ swerte daɥi na makita

lyo nang pagbolos can luha mata
huli cadtong aqui can saiyang maquita
ay! aqui co gñaya magpasalamat ca
ta cun daing’ suerte dai na makita


Dagos na kinogos ogma sinakolo
oh sakoŋ ginahaɥ ano namidbid mo
an saɥimoŋ inaɥ nasuhay saɥimo
ay sakoŋ ginahaɥ na haloy naŋ tiempo

Dagos na quinogos ogma sinacolo
oh sacong guinaha ano namidbid mo
an saimong ina nasuhay saimo
ay sacong guinaha na haloy nang tiempo


Sa dakulaŋ ogma saɥindaŋ inabot
Papa ki Trobador liwat hominapot
ano midbid mo akiŋ dominolok
creo santos padre si akiŋ bulanos

Sa daculang ogma saindang inabot
Papa ki Trobador liwat hominapot
ano midbid mo aking dominoloc
creo santos padre si aking bulanos


Si isay an amaɥ kan akiɥ moŋ iyan
olay ni Trabyata si Norma de Vismar
pues ŋonyan iyo siɥmoŋ magdadara man
si Norma moŋ dati iyo moŋ ibanhan

Si isay an ama can aki mong iyan
olay ni Trabiata si Norma de Vismar
pues gñonian iyo simong magdadara man
si Norma mong dati iyo mong ibanhan


Asin an olay pa kaɥiniŋ Santo Papa
Trobador an mondoɥ siɥmoŋ liŋawe na
ŋonyan an sakoɥ ika magpasyensya
huli ta si Norma siɥmo an enot na

Asin an olay pa caiining Santo Papa
Trobador an mondo simong ligñawe na
gñonian an saco ica magpasiencia
huli ta si Norma simo an enot na


Huli ta si Norma saɥimoŋ naɥenot
kainiŋ matrimonio na magpaliŋkod
igwaŋ aKiɥ ini ika magpahonod
na baga man kamo puro namomoɥot

Huli ta si Norma saimong naenot
caining matrimonio na magpalingcod
igoang aKi ini ica magpahonod
na baga man camo puro namomoot


Ako ŋaya Señor di sa pagsuhay
paɥanhon ko daw ta ako huri man
kundiɥ an sa sakoɥ sa Dyos na lamaŋ
ako mananarig kaɥiniŋ kasakitan

Aco gñaya Señor di sa pagsuhay
paanhon co dao ta aco huri man
cundi an sa saco sa Dios na lamang
aco mananarig caining casakitan


Tara an ginibo ni Trobador lamaŋ
sa Santo Papa siya nagpaɥaram
Norma y Trabyata sinda binayaɥan
antes na naghaleɥ sinda hinatolan

Tara an guinibo ni Trobador lamang
sa Santo Papa sia nagpaaram
Norma y Trabiata sinda binayaan
antes na naghale sinda hinatolan


An olay saɥinda kaɥiniŋ Santo Papa
maŋa sentimyento daɥi nin magdara
Trobador magɥenot magbantay sa pwerta
daŋan nagdispedir sa raŋaŋ Trabyata

An olay sainda caining Santo Papa
magña sentimiento dai nin magdara
Trobador mag-enot magbantay sa puerta
dagñan nagdispedir sa ragñang Trabiata


Sabihon ko naman na saysayon ko baga
Norma victorieso Tabyata dara na
kaɥidtoŋ Santo Papa naŋagpaɥaram na
sagkod sa ginahaɥ kaɥiba na ninda

Sabihon co naman na saysayon co baga
Norma victorieso Tabiata dara na
caidtong Santo Papa nagñagpaaram na
sagcod sa guinaha caiba na ninda


Pagdatoŋ sa pintoɥ na pigtitindogan
digdi ki Trobador Trabyata nagtaram
ini an sinabi Trobador an olay
sa saɥimoŋ poder iniŋ pagkabuhay

Pagdatong sa pinto na pigtitindogan
digdi ki Trobador Trabiata nagtaram
ini an sinabi Trobador an olay
sa saimong poder ining pagcabuhay


Huliŋ ika sakoɥ an nakapasiraŋ
sakoɥ pomasolnop ki Trabyataŋ olay
maɥwot ko Trobador ika man giraray
Norma naghinanyog kan siriŋ na bagay

Huling ica saco an nacapasirang
saco pomasolnop ki Trabiatang olay
mawot co Trobador ica man guiraray
Norma naghinaniog can siring na bagay


Trobador nagsimbag olay ki Trabyata
na siriŋ man ako siɥmoŋ patawara
huliŋ ika gadan na sakoŋ kinoɥa
gadan man giraray na ipuliɥ taka

Trobador nagsimbag olay ki Trabiata
na siring man aco simong patauara
huling ica gadan na sacong kinoa
gadan man guiraray na ipuli taca


Trabyata nagadan an mondoɥ labi na
pañoɥ ni Trobador kan hampakon siya
Trabyata an olay siento de mi alma
enterato siempre no vayas kon Norma

Trabiata nagadan an mondo labi na
paño ni Trobador can hampacon sia
Trabiata an olay siento de mi alma
enterato siempre no vayas con Norma


Makaɥoroɥogma pagloboŋ nin gadan
solemne kan enot na idto linopigan
maŋa instrumentos makuriŋ lipoɥŋaw
pagtogtog sa karro kaɥidtoŋ pagkagadan

Macaoroogma paglobong nin gadan
solemne can enot na idto linopigan
magña instrumentos macuring lipogñao
pagtogtog sa carro caidtong pagcagadan


Si Trobador mondoɥ daɥi masabi na
pagbasol makoriɥ kan pakolon niya
kaɥidtoŋ panwelo namoɥtan na raŋa
agraŋay na lamaŋ ako patawara

Si Trobador mondo dai masabi na
pagbasol macori can pacolon nia
caidtong panuelo namotan na ragña
agragñay na lamang aco patawara


Marhay pa Trabyata daɥi nabuhay ka
kan pagkagadan mo ciudad nin España
ta daɥi pa gayod nagtiɥos nin dusa
nin siriŋ kaɥini siento de gran pena

Marhay pa Trabiata dai nabuhay ca
can pagcagadan mo ciudad nin España
ta dai pa gayod nagtios nin dusa
nin siring caini siento de gran pena


Daɥi na kutaɥna akoŋ paggiromdomon
sa maŋa serbisyo na paghihidawon
alagad na ŋonyan kon sakoŋ isipon
an pagkagadan mo sa sakoɥ an onoŋ

Dai na cutana acong pagguiromdomon
sa magña servicio na paghihidawon
alagad na gñonian con sacong isipon
an pagcagadan mo sa saco an onong


Orog kaharayoɥ dagaɥ nin España
digdi ka nagadan sa dagaɥ nin Roma
kun bakoŋ sa amor di inabtan ta
iniŋ kasakitan na labilabi na

Orog caharayo daga nin España
digdi ca nagadan sa daga nin Roma
cun bacong sa amor di inabtan ta
ining casakitan na labilabi na


Marahay pa gayod an siɥmoŋ inabotan
ta ika gadan na an isip mahusay
an siriŋ sa sako ay makaɥoɥogay
"lomgom"(?) na an sakit iniŋ kamugtakan

Marahay pa gayod an simong inabotan
ta ica gadan na an isip mahusay
an siring sa saco ay maca-oogay
"lomgom"(?) na an sakit ining camugtacan


Satoŋ pagdamayan dagaŋ Amerika.
di mo na pigromdom na mabalik pa
ay Trabyataŋ poɥon kon ako magbwelta
daɥi na nin serbe ta ika gadan na

Satong pagdamayan dagang America.
di mo na pigromdom na mabalic pa
ay Trabiatang poon con aco magbuelta
dai na nin serve ta ica gadan na


An gabos na ini kun pagɥisipon ko
syempre an lipoɥŋaw ay magiromdoman ko
Trabyata marhay pa ako idamay mo
na makaɥiba na ako sa saɥimo

An gabos na ini cun pag isipon co
siempre an lipogñao ay maguiromdoman co
Trabiata marhay pa aco idamay mo
na maca-iba na aco sa saimo


Pakataram kaɥini Trobador nagadan
sa labiŋ pagmundoɥ buhay idinamay
ini na an sagkod nagin katapusan
vida ni Trobador Trabyataŋ mabansay.

Pacataram caini Trobador nagadan
sa labing pagmundo buhay idinamay
ini na an sagcod naguin catapusan
vida ni Trobador Trabiatang mabansay.