Philippine Numerals 1-9 for a National Language


In this study by Elizabeth Zeitoun et al, they discussed Ca-reduplication in the numerals 1-9 among Formosan languages which indicate [+]human . According to Zeitoun, Saaroa, Kanakanavu, Kavalan and Takbanauz Bunun and Farangaw Amis make this distinction. Here is the data for Saaroa, showing only the serial counting and the non-human counting.

  One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine
Saaroa saoú
ucani
ca:ni
sou
usua
su:a
toro
utolo
to:lo
pati
upatə
pa:tə
kulima
ulima
rima
kənəmə
ənəmə
neum
kupito
upito
pitò
kualo
ualo
kusia
usia
siwá
Siraya sat
sasat
sasaab
duha
rauha
turu
taturu
toutouro
hpat
tahat
rima
ririma
nnum
tunum
pitu
pipitu
pipa
kougipat
kuda
Amis cecai tusa tulu sepat lima qenem pitu falu siwa

And here is a sample of Ca- reduplication, found in Bashiic languages:

    One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine
Iraralay enumeration asa dowa atlo apat lima anem pito wawo siyam
  non-human   adowa tatlo papat alima nanem apito awawo asiyam
  human   rarowa atlo apat lalima anem papito wawawo sasiyam
Imorod enumeration asa dowa teylo apat lima anem pito wawo siam
  non-human   adoa atlo apat alima anem apito awao asyam
  human   raroa tatlo papat lalima nanem papito wawao sasiam

 

This Ca- reduplication is also manifested in the following words from a few sample languages:

  woman man
PMP *báhi *láki
Tagalog babáqi, babae lalaki
Bikol babaye lalaki
Cebuano babáye laláki
Kapampangan babái laláki
Ilokano babai lalaki
    lakiʔ < lakay

These forms imply that lalaki and babahi are male and female humans, so to get the male and female gender forms, its just the plain láki or báhi. Masculine and feminine would be maláki and mabáhi.

If we apply that to Philippine languages, we can identify which numerals in which languages follow these reduplication (in green).  Here are the 11 Philippine languages with speakers of more than 1 million:

Tagalog isá dalawá, dalwa tatló ápat lima ánim pitó waló siyám
Cebuano usa duhá tulo upát lima onom pito walo’ siam
Hiligaynon isá duha tatlo apat lima anum pito walo siám
Ilokano maysa dua tallo uppat lima innem pito walo’ siam
Bikol saroq duwa tulo apat lima anum pito walo siyam
Waray usá duhá tuló upát limá unóm pitó walú siyám
Rinconada ʔәˈsad darwá toló ʔәˈpat limá onóm pitó waló siyám
Maranao isa doa telo pat lima nem pito walo siyaw
Magindanaw isá duwá télu pat líma nem pítu wálu síaw
Pangasinan sakey duara talura apatira limara animira pitura walora siamira
Kapampangan métuŋ adwáq atlú apát lima anam pitú waló siam
Kinaray-a sara / isara darwa tatlo apat lima anəm pito walo siyam
Tausug hambuquk duah tuuh qupat limah qunum pituh waluh siam

And here are a sample from minority languages:

Dumagat Casiguran qɛsaq qɨdu’waq qɨtɨ’loq qɨ’pat li’maq qɨ’nɨm pi’tuq wa’luq si’yam
Kallahan Keleyqiq/Kayapa hakɨy dewwaq telluq qɨpat limaq qɨnɨm pituq waluq hiyam
Tagbanwa, Kalamian Coron tasaq duruaq tuluq qɨpat limaq qɨnɨm pituq waluq siam
Subanon, Sindangan sala duaq tɨlu pat lima gɨnɨm pitu walu siam
Batak, Palawan qɨsa duwá tulóq qɨpat lima qɨnɨm pitu qualu siam
Manobo, Ilianen sɨβɨka dɨruwa tɨtɨlu qɨpat lɨlima qɨnɨm pitu walu siyɨw
Itbayaten qaqsaq duhaq qatluq qaqpat limaq qaqnɨm pituq waǥuq siam

The expected Tagalog form for four and six is ‘ipat’ and ‘inim’, but these are contracted forms : ʔaʔipat > ʔaʔpat > ʔa: pat, ʔaʔinim > ʔaʔnim > ʔa:nim, where the chroneme signals that a sound has been deleted there (the intermediate forms are attested in Itbayaten). The corresponding Bikol and Bisayan forms have the accent not in the penult. In Kapampangan and Itbayaten, the initial C was deleted and In Tagbanwa Coron and Manobo Ilianen, the vowel has changed.  Pangasinan numeral forms has a suffix –(i)ra, which I don’t know the origin or if makes any distinction at all.

PROTO-FORMS

Here is the reconstructed forms for these languages:

PAN *isa *duhá *telu *Sepat *lima *ʔĕném *pitú *walú *Siwa
PMP *esa *duha *telu *epat *lima        
P-Bisayan *qəsá *duhá *təlú *qaqpat *limá *qənəm *pitú *walú *siyám
P-East Mindanao *isa *duha *tulu *upat *lima *ɨnɨm *pitu *walu *siyam
P-Southern Mindanao *satu *lɨwu *tlu *(q,’)ɨpat          
National Language sarɨʔ
sakɨy
duhaʔ
dusaʔ
tɨluʔ ʔɨpat
sɨpat
limaʔ kɨnɨm pituʔ waluʔ siyam
siwa

ONE

I doubt if the reconstruction for this word is correct. There are also a lot of forms.  Majority (in yellow) are derived from the form *ʔɨsa, but other languages (orange: Bikol, Kiniray-a and Subanon) show possible source of  sara. This form is also found in Indonesian languages (Makassar : sɛʔrɛ; Buginese : seʔdi; Blaan : satu; Toba Batak: sade; Malay : satu). There is a link between these two forms:Rinconada Bikol and Kiniray-a: ʔɨ’sada (as reflected in Aklanon ʔisaɣáh). Pangasinan and Kallahan (aqua) have sakɨy which is related to Amis in Taiwan. Because the Bikol form has -ʔ at the end and the Aklanon has –h and Pangasina/Kallahan has –y, the form should end in a consonant. Is ʔi- then a prefix?

TWO

Is the right form duwa or duha? Apart from Bisayan languages, Itbayaten also shows: duhaq. Most of the minority languages has a consonant at the end. Possible form would be duha? with attestation from Taiwan languages (Atayal : rusaʔ, Seediq : daháʔ, Bunun, Pazeh: ḍuṣaʔ, Amis : tusaʔ, Siraya : duha , Paiwan, Puyuma, Rukai: dusa). The path was dusaʔ > duhaʔ > duha > duwa.

THREE

All forms can be derived from tɨ’loʔ (Inibaloi has tɨdo): 

FOUR

All forms could be derived from ʔɨˈpat (also attested in Inibaloi, Ilonggot,  Kankanay, Bontoc). But Taiwan languages have sɨ’pat (Paiwan : səpat, Saisiyat : ʃəpat, Pazeh:   səpát, Basay, Amis : səpat).

FIVE

All forms can be derived from limaʔ. The form should end in consonant as attested in other Indonesian & Taiwan languages as well (Moken, Kayan, Iban, Seediq, Amis, Kavalan, Paiwan, Puyuma : limaʔ, Melayu Sarawak : limak, Rukai: rimaʔ).

SIX

All forms reflect the original *ʔɨnɨm (also found in Kankanay, Bontok, Itneg, Balangaw, Kalagan, Mansaka,Mamanwa: qɨ’nɨm, Amis: ʔənəm). But Siraya’s form is tunum, Atayal : matuuʔ, Saaroa : kənəmə, and Chamorro: gunum, pointing to a possible non-glottal initial.

SEVEN

Again, all languages have forms that can be derived from pitu? (also seen in Samal Siasi, bajo : pi’tuq, Rukai, Amis, Bunun, Atayal: pitúʔ).

EIGHT

Again, all of them have forms that can be derived from walu? ( also in Bundu Dusun, Samal Siasi, Bajo: wa’luq, Bunun: va’uʔ, Amis: faluʔ, Sakizaya: waluʔ, Puyuma : waruʔ).

NINE

Majority of the languages show *siyam. But others show *siwa.

OTHER NOTES

It should be noted that Tausug has hambuuk, which is a concatentation of ham+buuk. Buuk is also found in Bikol, as in the expression “sarong (ka)buuk nin niyog” "(one coconut). Buuk then can be translated as ones, like puloq is tens and gatos is hundreds.  Here is the full list of numerals with their different forms. The ʔɨ prefix is a compromise between a- in the Bashiic languages and u- in the Formosan languages.

  Serial counting Non-Human Enumeration Human Enumeration
1 sarɨʔ
ʔɨ-sarɨʔ sa-sarɨʔ
2 duhaʔ ʔɨduhaʔ da-duhaʔ
3 tɨluʔ ʔɨtɨluʔ ta-tɨluʔ
4 ʔɨpat ʔɨʔɨpat ʔa-ʔɨpat
5 limaʔ ʔɨlimaʔ la-limaʔ
6 kɨnɨm ʔɨkɨnɨm ka-kɨnɨm
7 pituʔ ʔɨpituʔ pa-pituʔ
8 waluʔ ʔɨwaluʔ wa-waluʔ
9 siyam ʔɨsiyam sa-siyam

 

The non-human enumeration form was pattered after Kanakanavu and Saaroa and Thao.

Some examples of use:

90 men sasiyam nga puloʔ nga lalaki
200 women daduhaʔ nga gatos nga babahi
50 chickens ʔɨlimaʔ  nga puloʔ  nga manuk
1 2 3 4 5 sarɨʔ duhaʔ tɨluʔ ʔɨpat limaʔ
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