The Filipino Conlang

As i have mentioned in my earlier post, I will be creating a conlang for the Philippines since the current Filipino language to me is still very much Tagalog. So here is the outline of this Filipino conlang. I will be filling up each section as I go along.

ORTHOGRAPHY

The script to be used is the same as I have described in my posts

  1. New Bikol Orthography – Part 1
  2. New Bikol Orthography – Part 2
  3. New Bikol Orthography – Part 3

LEXICON

The words of the conlang will be as I described in my Post “Conlang

As of the moment, it will have the same base words as the reconstructed Austronesian root words.

Here are good references for reconstructed root words:

1. Proto-Austronesian –  by Blust, by Zorc,

2. Proto-MalayoPolynesian – by Blust, by Zorc

3. Proto-Philippine – by Paz

4. Proto Greater Central Philippines – by Blust,

5. Proto-Bisayan– by Zorc

Blust’s full reconstructions are here for Proto-Austronesian, Proto-MalayoPolynesian, Proto Western MalayoPolynesian ,Proto-Philippines.

 

PRONUNCIATION

Pronunciation will be based on the reconstructed words.

1. Retention of –r-, –ɨ-, -ч-, etc.

   Bikol and Samarnon retained –r-, while Hiligaynon, Tagalog and Sugbuhanon changed it to –l-. Additionally, Tagalog and Sugbuhanon dropped or changed –l- to –w-, –h-. Tagalog also removed -ч- word internally or finally.

   Tagalog changed –ɨ– into –i-, Bikol into –a- and –o-/–u-, Kapampangan into –a-, and Sugbuhanon, Hiligaynon and Samarnon into –o-/-u-. Some dialects of Ilokano, Bikol, and Samarnon and the languages Kiniray-a and Pangasinan retained the –ɨ-.

 

GRAMMAR

http://www2.hawaii.edu/~reid/Combined%20Files/A79.%202009.%20Starosta,%20Pawley,%20Reid–Evolution%20of%20Focus–%5B1981%5D.pdf

http://www2.hawaii.edu/~reid/Combined%20Files/A21.%201979.%20Pawley-Reid–AN%20transitivity–rev%2011-06-09.pdf

http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=E8tApLUNy94C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Content words

Nouns

       Case

Grammatical case will not be marked on the word, but as Adpositions or case markers preposed to the word. See the subtopic Case Markers below.

       Number

Plural of the noun will be signalled using the plural word marker ‘manga’ found in Tagalog, Bikol, Sugbuhanon, Samarnon, Hiligaynon and Kapampangan instead of using the 3rd person plural pronoun like in Ilokano.

Some nouns will have reduplication in the form CV like Ilokano to signal plural meaning. I will expand this later.

       Gender & Noun Classes

No gender and noun class distinctions will be added to the conlang.

Verbs

       Valency & Transitivity

 

       Tense & Aspect

The conlang will not have tense, like other natural Philippine languages and will have aspect instead. The values of the aspectual system will be NonProgressive and Progressive. We will not be using Imperfective since that includes the Habitual and Continuous NonProgressive aspects. Continuous Progressive aspect “expresses processes, not states; expresses the dynamic quality of actions that are in progress”, while Continuous NonProgressive aspect  “expresses the state of the subject that is continuing the action” . When we use the term Non-Progressive by itself, we mean “all aspects excludes Continuous Progressive, and is not limited to just Continuous Non-Progressive”.

The Progressive Aspect is indicated by reduplicating the first CVC of the base word, roughly corresponding to the first syllable, somewhat similar to Ilocano reduplication. The difference is that if the first syllable is CV, an -h is suffixed to it, so the form is now CVh for open first syllables. Another difference is that the glottal stop (ч) is never lost, unlike in Ilokano. Samples below.

Base word Reduplicated word
ka.чɨn kah.ka.чɨn
bag.sak bag.bag.sak
suч.lot suч.suч.lot

The reduplication of word stem is done in Ilokano, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bikol and Samarnon and the more original. We will not signal Progressive by infixing with –a-  like Sugbuhanon, Hiligaynon, Samarnon or Kiniray-a.

       Voice, Focus & Control

We will be using as well the 4 argument focuses, with 2 paradigm for their conjugations distinguishing NonActor Argument Focus and Actor Argument Focus.  NonActor Argument Focus has –g-/pag/mag  in their conjugation. Samarnon will provide the template for the conjugation. Here is also an alternate table. Background data provided here. I choose gin> over the other shortening of pag+in ; I prefer  as it retains the other relevant morphemes, for my Filipino conlang, with in-control vs. out-of-control contrasts.

           Middle Voice

 

um-

NonProgressive Realis .umin….
Progressive Realis .umin.R….
NonProgressive Irrealis ..um…..
Progressive Irrealis .um.R….
NonProgressive Subjunctive …..
Progressive Subjunctive
.R….

With Control/ AAF

Aspect + Mood   \ Focus

ɨn

i-

-an

-um-

  NonActive Voice NonActive Voice NonActive Voice Active Voice
NonProgressive Realis gin……ɨn igin…… gin…..an minag…..
Progressive
Realis
gin.R……ɨn igin.R…… gin.R…..an minag.R..…
NonProgressive Irrealis *ag…..ɨn ig…… *ag..…an mag…..
Progressive
Irrealis
*ag.R..…ɨn ig.R…… *ag.R…..an mag.R…..
NonProgressive Subjunctive pag.…i pag……an pag…..i pag….
Progressive Subjunctive
pag.R…….i pag.R..….an pag.R…..i pag.R….

* <ɨn and <an Irrelias Mood forms have ag>  since g> can’t be prefixed without a vowel. I need to review that pag> and pa> uses are covered by these.

Without Control / NAAF

Aspect + Mood   \ Focus

ɨn

i-

-an

-um-

  NonActive Voice NonActive Voice NonActive Voice Active Voice
NonProgressive
Realis
in……ɨn i.in…… in…..an mina.…..
Progressive
Realis
in.R…..ɨn .ini.R…… in.R…..an mina.R…..
NonProgressive
Irrealis
…..ɨn i……    ..…an ma…..
Progressive
Irrealis
.R..…ɨn i.R…… .R…..an ma.R…..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
.…a ……an …..i pa……
Progressive
Subjunctive
.R…….a .R..….an .R…..i pa.R……

The Realis Mood NonProgressive Aspect conjugation of –um- was taken from Bikol, which spells out the two affixes, instead of Tagalog –um-, which is indistinguishable from the infinitive. In Samarnon –inm- , –imn-  and Sugbuhanon mi- , those features are fused.  The Realis Mood Progressive Aspect conjugation of –um- would be –umin-R , which is found in Hiligaynon, but in the form ..inm.R…..(ex: sinmusulat) or Tagalog …ungm.R…..(ex: pungmapasok, gungmagawa). The addition of suffix –ɨn in the Realis Mood of the conjugation, which exists in some Formosan languages Saisiat, Pazeh, Thao and Siraya. The use of minag>  and mina> is found in Casiguran Dumagat.

       Mood

       Number and Pluractionality

There will be no subject number marker on the verb which indicate that the plurality of participants. What will be marked on the verb is a form of pluractional number, which indicate plurality of actions. Bikol has an infix to signal pluractional verbs: –Vr-. This is also present in Samarnon and  Aklanon with limited productivity and in frozen forms in most languages.

A plural subject will almost always have a pluractional verb, but a single subject can also have a pluractional verb. I will expand this section later.

Conjugation for plural: the plural has an infix <Vr>.

       Iterativity and Frequentativity

Again, Bikol will provide the template for this feature.

  Iterative1 Iterative2
NonProgressive taga… para….
Progressive tataga… papara…..
 

       Verbal Affixes

     
  hing-  
  sa-  
  ki-  
  ka-  

FULL CONJUGATION

Non-iterative

Singular  Action

 

um-

NonProgressive Realis .umin….
Progressive Realis .umin.R….
NonProgressive Irrealis ..um…..
Progressive Irrealis .um.R….
NonProgressive Subjunctive …..
Progressive Subjunctive .R….

 

 

ɨn

i-

-an

-um-

NonProgressive
Realis
gin.……ɨn igin…… gin…..an minag…..
Progressive
Realis
gin.R……ɨn igin.R…… gin.R…..an minag.R..…
NonProgressive
Irrealis
*ag…..ɨn ig…… *ag..…an mag…..
Progressive
Irrealis
*ag.R..…ɨn ig.R…… *ag.R…..an mag.R…..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
pag.…i pag……an pag…..i pag….
Progressive
Subjunctive
pag.R…….i pag.R..….an pag.R…..i pag.R….
NonProgressive
Realis
in……ɨn i.in…… in…..an mina.…..
Progressive
Realis
in.R…..ɨn .ini.R…… in.R…..an mina.R…..
NonProgressive
Irrealis
…..ɨn i……    ..…an ma…..
Progressive
Irrealis
.R..…ɨn i.R…… .R…..an ma.R…..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
.…a ……an …..i pa……
Progressive
Subjunctive
.R…….a .R..….an .R…..i pa.R……

Plural Action

 

um-

NonProgressive Realis .umin.Vr.
Progressive Realis .umin.R.Vr.
NonProgressive Irrealis ..um.Vr..
Progressive Irrealis .um.R.Vr.
NonProgressive Subjunctive .Vr..
Progressive Subjunctive .R.Vr.
 

ɨn

i-

-an

-um-

NonProgressive
Realis
gin..Vr……ɨn igin.Vr gin.Vr..an minag….Vr..
Progressive
Realis
gin.R.Vrɨn igin.R.Vr gin.R.Vr..an minag.R...Vr
NonProgressive
Irrealis
*ag….Vr..ɨn ig….Vr *ag...Vran mag….Vr..
Progressive
Irrealis
*ag.R...Vrɨn ig.R.Vr *ag.R.Vr..an mag.R.Vr..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
pag..Vr…i pag….Vr…an pag….Vr..i pag….Vr.
Progressive
Subjunctive
pag.R.Vr….i pag.R...Vr….an pag.R.Vr..i pag.R.Vr.
NonProgressive
Realis
in.Vrɨn i.in.Vr in.Vr..an mina.….Vr..
Progressive
Realis
in.R.Vr..ɨn .ini.R.Vr in.R.Vr..an mina.R.Vr..
NonProgressive
Irrealis
.Vr..ɨn i…..Vr..    ...Vran ma….Vr..
Progressive
Irrealis
.R...Vrɨn i.R.Vr .R.Vr..an ma.R.Vr..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
..Vra …..Vr..an .Vr..i pa….Vr
Progressive
Subjunctive
.R.Vr….a .R...Vr….an .R.Vr..i pa.R.Vr

 

Iterative 1

Singular  Action

 

um-

NonProgressive Realis tuminaga.
Progressive Realis .umin.R…taga.
NonProgressive Irrealis tumaga..
Progressive Irrealis .um.R…taga.
NonProgressive Subjunctive taga…..
Progressive Subjunctive .Rtaga.

 

 

ɨn

i-

-an

-um-

NonProgressive
Realis
gin.…taga…ɨn igintaga gintaga..an minagtaga..
Progressive
Realis
gin.Rtagaɨn igin.Rtaga gin.Rtaga..an minag.R..taga
NonProgressive
Irrealis
*agtaga..ɨn igtaga *agtagaan magtaga..
Progressive
Irrealis
*ag.R.taga.…ɨn ig.Rtaga *ag.Rtaga..an mag.Rtaga..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
pagtaga…i pagtaga…an pagtaga..i pagtaga.
Progressive
Subjunctive
pag.Rtaga….i pag.R.taga.….an pag.Rtaga..i pag.Rtaga.
NonProgressive
Realis
tinaga…ɨn itinaga… tinaga..an minataga.…..
Progressive
Realis
in.R…taga..ɨn .ini.R…taga… in.R…taga..an mina.R…taga..
NonProgressive
Irrealis
taga…..ɨn itaga…    taga.…an mataga…..
Progressive
Irrealis
.R.taga.…ɨn i.Rtaga .Rtaga..an ma.Rtaga..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
taga.…a taga……an taga…..i pataga……
Progressive
Subjunctive
.Rtaga….a .R.taga.….an .Rtaga..i pa.Rtaga

 

Plural Action

 

um-

NonProgressive Realis t.umin…aga.Vr.
Progressive Realis .umin.R…taga.Vr.
NonProgressive Irrealis t..um…aga.Vr..
Progressive Irrealis .um.R…taga.Vr.
NonProgressive Subjunctive taga.Vr..
Progressive Subjunctive .Rtaga.Vr.
 

ɨn

i-

-an

-um-

NonProgressive
Realis
gin...taga.Vr……ɨn igintaga.Vr gintaga.Vr..an minagtaga.Vr..
Progressive
Realis
gin.Rtaga.Vrɨn igin.Rtaga.Vr gin.Rtaga.Vr..an minag.R.taga..Vr
NonProgressive
Irrealis
*ag…taga.Vr..ɨn igtaga.Vr *agtaga...Vran magtaga.Vr..
Progressive
Irrealis
*ag.R..taga.Vrɨn ig.Rtaga.Vr *ag.Rtaga.Vr..an mag.Rtaga.Vr..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
pagtaga..Vr…i pagtaga.Vr…an pagtaga.Vr..i pagtaga.Vr.
Progressive
Subjunctive
pag.Rtaga.Vr….i pag.R.taga..Vr….an pag.Rtaga.Vr..i pag.Rtaga.Vr.
NonProgressive
Realis
tin…aga.Vrɨn itin…aga.Vr tin…aga.Vr..an minataga.….Vr..
Progressive
Realis
in.R…taga.Vr..ɨn .ini.R…taga.Vr in.R…taga.Vr..an mina.R…taga.Vr..
NonProgressive
Irrealis
taga.Vr..ɨn itaga..Vr..    taga...Vran mataga.Vr..
Progressive
Irrealis
.R.taga..Vrɨn i.Rtaga.Vr .Rtaga.Vr..an ma.Rtaga.Vr..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
taga..Vra taga…..Vr..an taga.Vr..i pataga.Vr
Progressive
Subjunctive
.Rtaga.Vr….a .R..taga.Vr….an .Rtaga.Vr..i pa.Rtaga.Vr

Iterative2

Singular  Action

 

um-

NonProgressive Realis puminara.
Progressive Realis .umin.R…para.
NonProgressive Irrealis pumara..
Progressive Irrealis .um.R…para.
NonProgressive Subjunctive para…..
Progressive Subjunctive .R…para.

 

ɨn

i-

-an

-um-

NonProgressive
Realis
ginpara…ɨn iginpara ginpara..an minagpara..
Progressive
Realis
gin.R…paraɨn igin.R…para gin.R…para..an minag.R..para
NonProgressive
Irrealis
*agpara..ɨn igpara *agparaan magpara..
Progressive
Irrealis
*ag.R.para.…ɨn  ig.R…para *ag.R…para..an mag.R…para..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
pagpara…i pagpara…an pagpara..i pagpara.
Progressive
Subjunctive
pag.R…para….i pag.R.para.….an pag.R…para..i pag.R…para.
NonProgressive
Realis
pinara…ɨn ipinara… pinara..an minapara.…..
Progressive
Realis
in.R…para..ɨn .ini.R…para… in.R…para..an mina.R…para..
NonProgressive
Irrealis
para…..ɨn ipara…    para.…an mapara…..
Progressive
Irrealis
.R.para.…ɨn i.R…para .R…para..an ma.R…para..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
para.…a para……an para…..i papara……
Progressive
Subjunctive
.R…para….a .R.para.….an .R…para..i pa.R…para

Plural Action

 

um-

NonProgressive Realis puminara.Vr.
Progressive Realis .umin.R…para.Vr.
NonProgressive Irrealis pumara.Vr..
Progressive Irrealis .um.R…para.Vr.
NonProgressive Subjunctive para.Vr..
Progressive Subjunctive .R…para.Vr.
 

ɨn

i-

-an

-um-

NonProgressive
Realis
ginpara.Vr……ɨn iginpara.Vr ginpara.Vr..an minagpara.Vr..
Progressive
Realis
gin.R…para.Vrɨn igin.R…para.Vr gin.R…para.Vr..an minag.R.para..Vr
NonProgressive
Irrealis
*ag…para.Vr..ɨn igpara.Vr *agpara...Vran magpara.Vr..
Progressive
Irrealis
*ag.R..para.Vrɨn ig.R…para.Vr *ag.R…para.Vr..an mag.R…para.Vr..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
pagpara..Vr…i pagpara.Vr…an pagpara.Vr..i pagpara.Vr.
Progressive
Subjunctive
pag.R…para.Vr….i pag.R.para..Vr….an pag.R…para.Vr..i pag.R…para.Vr.
NonProgressive
Realis
pinara.Vrɨn ipinara.Vr pinara.Vr..an minapara.….Vr..
Progressive
Realis
in.R…para.Vr..ɨn .ini.R…para.Vr in.R…para.Vr..an mina.R…para.Vr..
NonProgressive
Irrealis
para.Vr..ɨn ipara..Vr..    para...Vran mapara.Vr..
Progressive
Irrealis
.R.para..Vrɨn i.Rpara.Vr .R…para.Vr..an ma.R…para.Vr..
NonProgressive
Subjunctive
para..Vra para…..Vr..an para.Vr..i papara.Vr
Progressive
Subjunctive
.R…para.Vr….a .R..para.Vr….an .R…para.Vr..i pa.R…para.Vr

 

  

Modifiers

       Degree of Comparison

       Affixes

We will use Bikol, Samarnon, Sugbuhanon ‘ha-‘ instead of Tagalog ma- for spatio-temporal adjectives, like hataas, hababa. Ma- is to be used for all other adjectives, like maganda, matanda.

 

      

 

 

 

 Function Words

Construction Markers

       Case Markers

1. Locative Case Marker. Use of  (Agta, Cordilleran, Ivatan, Malay, Toba Batak) ‘di’ as a locative marker, instead of most ‘sa’. The use of locative ‘di’ is inline with demonstrative dito, dine, diyan, and (Samarnon, Sugbuhanon) diin instead of (Tagalog) ‘saan’, (Bikol) ‘saen’. This is not yet fully thought out. I might retain the ‘sa’ case marker for object locative and di for place locatives. on further analysis.

2. Genitive Case Markers will be using (Tagalog) nang (definite) and (Bikol) ning (indefinite) instead of (Hiligaynon, Samarnon) sang and sing.  Nominative markers (Samarnon) ‘ang’ and ‘ing’ will be adopted as well. Tagalog ‘nang’ (so that) will be replaced with Bikol ‘ngani’ + nga. ‘Nang’ will not have a meaning ‘while’ or ‘when’, so use ‘habang’. some use of ‘nang’ can be broken down into ‘na’+nga.

3. The Personal case markers (si, ni, di) will have a counterpart (su, nu, du) for out of sight referents, like in Ivatan.

       Topic Marker

We will use Aklanon ‘hay’ instead of Tagalog ‘ay’. This is because Tagalog changes ‘h’ to a glottal stop, like (Bikol, Bisayan) hipos > (Tagalog) ipis; (Bikol) hutok, (Itbayaten) hotek > (Kapampangan, Tagalog) utak, (Sugbuhanon) utuk. In the same way, halis would be used instead of (Tagalog) alis, (Bikol) hale.

       Ligature or Linker

We will use Ilokano, Sugbuhanon, Samarnon, Hiligaynon ‘nga’ instead of Tagalog, Bikol, Toba Batak ‘na’ or Ilokano, Maranao ‘a”. The reason we will be using ‘nga’ and not ‘na’ is that the case markers end in ‘-ng’, not ‘-n’, like ang, ing, nang, ning, not an, in, nin, nan. The ligature or linker may be joined to the preceding word only if it ends in a vowel  ant not in glottal (h,ч) like Bikol or Bisayan, nor in –n like Tagalog, nor does it changes into an ‘a’ if the succeeding word begins with a vowel, like Ilokano. Some base words that orthographically ends in a vowel actually ends in an –h. We will use Aklanon and Itbayaten to distinguish which words ends in a vowel.

       Coordinating Conjunctions

 

       Subordinating Conjunctions

 

Pronouns

       Case

 

       Number &  Clusivity

       Person     

Demonstratives

 

Interrogatives

 

Polarity & Negation

 

Other Particles for Evidentiality, Mirativity, etc.

 

Syntax & Word Order

Topic

 

Animacy

 

Sentence Types

 

Semantic Alignment

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